Checking through GParted, the default GUI partition tool in GNU/Linux shown that "The driver descriptor says the physical block size is 2048, but Linux says it is 512 bytes"
As usual, SO gave us the root cause and solution to rectify this block size error issue. It seems that I may accidentally wrote to the USB thumb drive using the wrong parameter through `dd` command. To fix this, we need update the thumb drive's partition to the right block size. Running the command below did resolve the issue for me.
$ sudo dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdc bs=2048 count=32 32+0 records in 32+0 records out 65536 bytes (66 kB, 64 KiB) copied, 0.00655332 s, 10.0 MB/s
Once the corrupted block issue have been resolved, go back to GParted and refresh the thumb drive. GParted will prompt you to create a new partition table.
After we have created the partition table, Nautilus will show a proper mounted thumb drive. See screenshot below.
Download the Ubuntu installation ISO file. I'm downloading both the mini and Ubuntu server 17.04 ISO file. This is the time where torrent really shine where I can achieve the speed of 3.02 MB/s, a feat not doable even using parallel HTTP connection using download manager like Aria2.
Next, burn the ISO using the Startup Disk Creator. Load the ISO file as the source disc image and burn it to your thumb drive.
In the past I always used dd command line utility to burn ISO. Little I realized once you've done burning, you can test the thumb drive.
Verification is done by QEMU, hosted hypervisor. If you can see below installation menu, then the thumb drive have been burned and can boot up correctly.
You can achieve similar result through the command line command below. X is the alphabet of your thumb drive.
$ qemu-system-x86_64 -hda /dev/sdX