We will illustrate by compile and install the latest version of SQLite, a lightweight database management system.
1. First, download the latest SQLite source code. We're using the autoconf version. Later, extract the tarball.
$ wget https://www.sqlite.org/2013/sqlite-autoconf-3080002.tar.gz $ tar zxvf sqlite-autoconf-3080002.tar.gz
2. After that, we need to install all the necessary software or libraries in order to compile it. apt-get has a wonderful option call build-dep which will install all these dependencies so you can build the software.
$ sudo apt-get build-dep sqlite3
3. Go into the source code folder and generate the Makefile.
$ cd sqlite-autoconf-3080002 $ ./configure
4. Before we compile the source code, let's install the checkinstall package.
$ sudo apt-get install checkinstall
5. Compile the source code and create a .deb package. Make sure you pass -j option  to to speed up the compilation time. Rules of thumb is twice the number of your CPU cores. For my case, my lappy has 4 CPU cores using the nproc command. Hence, we should use -j8 option.
$ make -j8 && sudo checkinstall
6. Please take note that checkinstall will create a package and install it immediately. Buy you can remove it.
$ sudo dpkg -r sqlite-autoconf
7. Check the content the the deb package file. It will show you a list of files to be installed.
$ dpkg --contents sqlite-autoconf_3080002-1_amd64.deb