Upgrade to Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver

Yes, the regular updates on my Ubuntu distro in my lappy. While reading back my old posts, I just realized that I've written personal for almost each Ubuntu release like 17.10, 17.04, 15.10, and 13.04. Not sure why, but I didn't jot down any upgrade notes on 16.10, 16.04, 14.10, 14.04, 13.10, and earlier.

Upgrade was done as usual but with a few hiccups. Full upgrade was possible with a few manual intervention of the package management.

First, not enough free disk space in '/boot' folder.

The upgrade has aborted. The upgrade needs a total of 127 M free
space on disk '/boot'. Please free at least an additional 82.7 M of
disk space on '/boot'. You can remove old kernels using 'sudo apt
autoremove' and you could also set COMPRESS=xz in
/etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf to reduce the size of your
initramfs.

Resolved this by removing all the previous Linux kernels and so surprised to know that my machine have so many different versions lying around. No wonder there was limited spaces available.

Second, upgrading was halted due to packaging dependency. Not sure why. Googling around for answers and trying a few usual solutions did not help at all and kept getting the same old error message.

E: Sub-process /usr/bin/dpkg returned an error code (1)

dpkg: error processing archive 
   /var/cache/apt/archives/libmariadb3_3.0.3-1build1_amd64.deb (--unpack):
 trying to overwrite '/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/mariadb/plugin/dialog.so', 
   which is also in package libmariadb2:amd64 2.3.3-1
 Errors were encountered while processing:
 /var/cache/apt/archives/libmariadb3_3.0.3-1build1_amd64.deb
 E: Sub-process /usr/bin/dpkg returned an error code (1)

At the end of the days, the Synaptic tool save the day and resolving all the conflicts.


It's just me or something else, `apt` doesn't seems to have a right default options to resolve conflicts compare to Synaptic.

Now for the changes, reading through the release notes, I've learned a few things and realized that I was quite lost touch with the server part of Ubuntu distro.

1/ Netplan, the network configuration abstraction renderer. Basically it's just a tool to manage networking through YAML file. Surprisingly, the console tool was written in C instead of the regularly used Python. Not sure why but surely it must have a good reason.

2/ New features only available for new installation but not upgrade. For example, swap file instead of swap partition, Python 3 over Python 2, full disk encryption (LUKS) instead of folder encryption.

3/ Subiquity, the server installer was available for server user. Definitely a DIY solution to differentiate themselves from default Debian installer.

4/ LXD 3.0. A better alternative or solution to Vagrant or Docker. I've been lost tracked of this project. Maybe it's the right time to look and get my homelab machine to run this again.

5/ chrony replaced ntpd (there are comparison as well). One good thing is chrony was licensed in GPLv2.

6/ On the desktop front, from the GNOME 3.28 release notes, Boxes was getting much needed love. Previous version was so buggy that made you wonder why it was ever released in the first place.


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