UMT MOOC: Ornamental Fish Culture - Topic 4: Nutrition of Ornamental Fish - Vitamins & Carotenoids

Essential micronutrients (in small quantity) that are needed for growth, health, reproduction, and maintenance. As these elements cannot be synthesized or can only in insufficient quantity, these must be obtained from external fish diet. Type of vitamins depends on how it can be solubility either in water (Biotin, Choline, Folic Acid, or Niacin) or fat (Vitamin A, D, E, or K). Due to solubility, water-soluble vitamins leached within 30s after exposure.

Is Vitamin crucial for fish diet? Yes. One study shows that diet with ascorbic acid (25 mg/kg) for Oscar (Astronotus ocellatus) can prevent growth reduction and deforminitis (opercula and jaws deformities, haemorrhage in the eyes and fns, or lordosis). As this is taken from the slides, I can't the research paper that claimed this.

Carotenoid is organic colour pigments that are produced by plants or algae. As fish cannot synthesize pigments, hence colouration for fish needs to be obtained through Carotenoids within the fish dietary. The photo below (Source: Manas K Maiti, Deepjyoti Bora, Nandeesha TL, S Sahoo, Adarsh BK and Sikendra Kumar (2017) Effect of dietary natural carotenoid sources on colour enhancement of Koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L.) shows that lacking of Carotenoid in fish diet will impact the colourization or pigmentation.

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