Showing posts with label betta. Show all posts
Showing posts with label betta. Show all posts

Research Paper to Read: (2014) The Study of Different Foods on Spawning Efficiency of Siamese Fighting Fish (Species: Betta splendens, Family: Belontiidae)

Source: ResearchGate.

What are the key point here?
(1) There is no significant differences between live feeds (Artemia, Blood worm, and Gammarus) and artificial feeds in Betta sp. breeding.

Why this paper?
As fish diet is a crucial nourishment for the brood stock in conditioning Betta sp. for breeding. What are the possible best food available to obtain a large spawn? Having a large spawn increases the breeder farm profits as the farm owner sell more fishes. This question have been asked numerous time in online forums and the general consensus among the breeders is use live foods with high protein nutrients. However, obtaining and culturing live feeds do incur additional costs and labour. Thus, through this paper, we would like to know what are the significant differences in using different foods and if those differences worth using it. (Note: This is not a the best written paper but we are always curious about the materials and methods used in breeding. Either it reconfirm our understanding or raises further questions regarding our current approach.)

Material and Methods
This experiment was conducted in a commercial fish farm which produces 50000 fishes annually. The material used are 20 aquariums, 40 fishes, 5 different fish feeds with 4 replicates as shown below. The dimension of each aquarium is 40cm x 30cm x 30cm with water height around 15cm, which is 18 litres. (Note: Not sure about the 'mass', assumed it refers to a group of egg.)

(1) Artermia cyst x 4 pairs.
(2) Artermia mass x 4 pairs.
(3) Blood worm x 4 pairs.
(4) Gammarus mass x 4 pairs.
(5) Commercial food x 4 pairs.

The water parameters of the breeding tank as below:

(1) pH: 7.5.
(2) Air temperature: 30 - 35 Celsius.
(3) Water temperature: 26 - 28 Celsius.
(4) Hardness: 108 ppm.
(5) Dissolved oxygen: 6 mg / litre.

The breeding procedures as follows:

(1) The breeding tanks were disinfected with salt without iodine.
(2) Fishes were disinfected using solution of 5% Acrofelavin bath for 5 minutes.
(3) Once the brood stocks were added to the breeding tank, it's not feed for 24 hours.
(4) A glass screen was added between the pair of fishes.
(5) Fishes were fed twice (9 a.m. and 6 p.m.) on daily basis on ratio of 3% of body weight of the fish.
(6) Thick plastic with measurement of 10 cm x 10 cm was added to the side of male fish.
(7) The pair of fish was conditioned for 15 days.
(8) Female fish was released to the male once the bubble nest size reaches 500 bubbles.
(9) Once spawning is done, the female is extracted out from the breeding tank.

During the incubation period, the temperature of the breeding tank is controlled with a digital thermometer (VIPRO) with a 0.1 Celsius minuteness. The temperature is set at 27 Celsius. 10 eggs were randomly selected from each breeding tank and were measured using a digital micrometer (Leitz, model 621).

From the table below, it's shown that there is no significant differences (P >= 0.05) between different food treatments even though the pair fed with blood worms produced the most eggs and the lowest spawning time. (Note: Table below is not the best way to present your tabulated data).

While the feeds doesn't show any significant impact in affecting the eggs production. As the brood stock is fed twice per days, if the feeding frequency increased to 4 times / day, will it impact the result? While live feed like Blood worms are rich with protein, does artificial feeds with similar protein percentage may have the similar or better results?

What you're going to do with the knowledge you've gained?
(1) Conditioning for 14 days or 2 weeks is crucial to make sure the pair of brood stock breed. Thus, we will need get a good partition to separate both fishes instead of using plastic container to hold the female Betta sp.

(2) Where can we get Gammarus?

What are the further unsolved questions?
(1) What is the optimum tank size suitable for breeding Betta sp.?
(2) What is the optimum feeding frequency suitable for the brood stock?

Note to Self:
(1) Be careful when selecting papers to read. Always check the references section to determine whether this is a significant paper to read.

(2) Paper with plenty of grammatical and spelling errors is a good indicator to skip it.

This Week I Learned 2019 - Week 11

Continue from last week or something before that.

What else I've learned this week not within this post? Still continue with the seventh week of ornamental fish culture learning. This week we looked into caring of your fishes in term of feeding and observation; siphon and larval removal. Also the start of discussion on larval rearing of Elacatinus figaro (Barber Goby) and Carassius auratus (Goldfish). The paper of the week is the Siamese fighting fish on the limited researches done scientifically. Concluding the week, HTTP::AnyUA is the Perl module we reviewed this week.

谁是你生命中最特殊的女朋友? 想不到,龙应台都已经67岁了。多年前,曾经读过的《野火集》。 如今,重想起来,仔细内容也不记得了,只有模糊糊的印象,还有少许的情绪。当然,毕竟都有些年纪了,也许是时候重温一下,再重新阅读这书。有些书,是要每年去重读一片,有些书,是要马上丢进垃圾桶。

What is something we usually do but still do it the wrong way? Taking medication at the right time. According to MyHealth portal, the right time to take your medication depends on the daily frequency as shown below. What's surprising that there are medication for 4 dosages per day. Must be quite a challenge to take those medications on time every 6 hours as we have to plan for meal time if the medication is only taken before or after meal.

(1) 1 dosage / day: 8 a.m.
(2) 2 dosages / day: 8 a.m. / 8 p.m.
(3) 3 dosages / day: 6 a.m. / 2 p.m. / 10 p.m.
(4) 4 dosages / day: 6 a.m. / 12 p.m. / 6 p.m. / 12 a.m.

According to MyHealth portal again, another misconception we have is taking medication before meal. It doesn't means that we should take it before we eat our meal. It should be taken 1 hour before meal or 2 hours after meal (Note: The 2 hours is something new). For some medication, 30 minutes before meal. To be on the safe side, 30 minutes before meal. So for medication to be taken before meal for 4 dosages per day, it should be taken at 5:30 a.m., 12 p.m., 5:30 p.m., and 11:30 p.m.

How about the 3 dosages per day? Why the third dosage need to be taken at 10 p.m.? For this schedule, the last dosage was scheduled at 10 p.m. because it's advisable to have a gap of 2 or 3 hours between meal and bedtime.

Again, consult your physician and don't simply read and trust any medical information found online.

Why this is the most strict feeding schedule for Betta sp.? Based on the baby betta care video of Big City Betta channel, we are surprised that the breeder (Amber) have such a strict feeding and water changes schedule (see screenshot below) for the first two weeks.

Compare to most breeders out there, her method in setting up the breeding environment is probably the most elaborate and humane. Typically you just get a container, add aged water and plants, condition the male and female pair, and release the female once the male have build a bubble nest.

Research Paper to Read: (2009) The Siamese fighting fish: Well-known generally but little-known scientifically

Source: Research Gate.

What are the key point here?
(1) There are 55 species of Bettas in Indochina and can be grouped into either nest building or mouth brooding care. Thailand have 10 wild Bettas where 4 are bubble-nest builders and 6 are mouth brooders. (Note: I'm quite surprised and thought TH have more, it seemed MY have even more wild Betta sp.)

(2) More research should be done locally but instead more publications are published by those living overseas with where Betta sp. is not abundance. (Note: Something similar to MY where most publications on Betta sp. came from SG researcher)

Why this paper?
As the common name implies, Siamese fighting fish, also known scientifically Betta sp. is a popular ornamental fish in Thailand. Ornamental fish is a large commercial fish export for Thailand especially Betta sp., which is the top two in term of revenues. There are numerous research paper conducted by Thai researchers to improve the production and conservation of this species. This paper focus on reviewing the general aspect of breeding Betta sp., newer scientific research on genetics of this species, conservation, and which areas should be prioritized by biologists and breeders.

Material and Methods


In Thailand, there are 10 wile Bettas types which are divided into two egg brooding cares of nest building and mouth brooding.

(a) Bubble-nest builder: B. splendens (Regan, 1910), B. smaragdina (Ladiges, 1972), B. imbellis (Ladiges, 1975), and B. sp. Mahachai (has not been classified)

(b) Mouth brooder: B. prima (Kottelat, 1994), B. simplex (Kottelat, 1994), B. pi (Tan, 1998), B. pallida (Schindler & Schmidt, 2004), B. apollon (Schindler & Schmidt, 2006), and B. ferox (Schindler & Schmidt, 2006).

The DNA sequence below illustrates the genetic difference of some of the Betta sp. and Gouramis (Tricopsis and Trichogaster).

The distribution of these wild Bettas as shown in both map below. Fishes are generally found in Paddy fields, marshes, ponds, lagoons, lakes, acidic swamps, streams, and brackish waters. While divulging exact locations may lead to poaching, the are several actual causes that endangered Betta sp. Urbanization, tourism, and agriculture are the main threats to the wild Betta sp. population.

What you're going to do with the knowledge you've gained?
(1) Atison Phumchoosri is a prominent world recognized Thai Betta sp. breeder which have been raising Betta sp. in a grand scale (20000 till 200000 fishes at a time) for many years. As a hobbyist, we don't breed in such scale, but his Thai breeding method is something we can learn from.

(2) Obtain other wild Bettas in MY and try to breed it and compare it with commercially breed Betta sp. and see what the differences. Try look for mouth brooder species.

(3) Investigate whether mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) have effect on male/female ratio.

(4) Besides tropical almond leaf (Terminalia catappa), Yucca plant can be used in breeding tank to get rid of body water like ammonia. Both these plants extract is the active ingredients in Atison's Betta spa by Ocean Nutrition. Investigate on Yucca plant extract as a complementary ingredient when setting up a breeding environment.

(5) Look into publications and researches done by Horst Linke, the famous aquarist.

What are the further unsolved questions?
(1) Is there a distribution map of wild Bettas species in MY?

This Week I Learned 2019 - Week 09

Previous week post or something from the past.

What else I've learned this week not within this post? Going through the seventh week of ornamental fish culture on Phytoplankton, feeding schedule, Infosuria and Rotifier. The review paper of this week is on using fruit fly maggots as an alternative food source for breeding Betta splendens. We also looked into two Perl modules, Carp and Carp::Always.

What is a FrakenPad? (via HN) The nicest thing about Thinkpad lappy is modularity where each computer components are interchangeable in some way of another with minor hack. Till today, many still preferred the classic ideal keyboard layout instead of the island-style keyboard layout even though the focus group study proved the later style is preferable. No doubt, based on the study, tactile and audio feedback is better with island-style, but the new keyboard layout is way better with classic-style. And yet, till today, it still puzzled me why can't Lenovo create a T25 with good screen and hardware specification which leads to the creation of FrakenPad or mods from China? Perhaps it's manufacturing processes or costs? Or maybe it's because of Apple?

Should you ditch your phone? (via HN) No. And you should focus on features that enrich your life instead of making you additive. There are many ways to reduce the addiction, for example, switch your phone screen to grayscale. By doing so, you still retain those smart phone features (e.g. Maps) that you need and at the same time, reduce your phone usage. For those who prefer more constraints but still retain Internet connectivity, the newly released Nokia 210 feature phone is a good choice. Instead of creating intervention on your device, perhaps we should create our own self-constraints, discipline.

为什么传统武术这么弱? 看了《倭寇的踪迹》,现实的武术其实一点都不浪漫,脱离实战。整套电影颠倒了传统武侠片的浪漫情怀,更倾向冷幽默及反思的电影。

What is a Magpie developer? Do you love latest greatest shinny new tech? If yes, then high chances that you're a Magpie developer. And contrary to the article, there is nothing wrong being one. The world is moving fast and attention span is short and expensive. One thing about tech after all these Interweb years, we kept re-discover and re-label existing tech with fancy new names.

How hard is to line breeding your Betta sp.? Hard, especially on certain species. Furthermore, you must obtain good broodstock with quality traits and ensuring the at least four generations. The next challenge we normally faced is the broodstock won't breed, even though both fishes were healthy and well-conditioned. The obtain pure quality traits, you must ensure the broodstock still alive during these periods (2 till 3 years) to breed again with the next generation fishes.

What is something no one really tells you about getting older? Focus right, eat correctly, and sleep well.

Research Paper to Read : (2017) Fruit Fly Maggots as Alternative Feed to Improve Siamese Fighting Fish (Betta splendens) Fecundity, Eggs Hatchability and Fry Survivability

Source: MyJurnal

What are the key point here?
(1) Fruit fly maggots can serve as alternative diet for Betta splendens in addition to bloodworms and formulated pellets which yields result with non-significant differences of average hatchability rate of 65% and survivability rate of 69%.
(2) Commercial pellets is not a suitable diet for broodstock for breeding purpose but it's good enought for daily diet consumption.

Why this paper?
It's rare to find local and recent research paper from local university from MY on Betta splendens. Furthermore, we are curious and researching about alternative diets in addition to existing typical diets like Artemia / Brine Shrimp, Moina, Daphnia, Vinegal eel, Blood worm, Tubifex worm, Mysis shrimp, Grindal worm, Flightless fruit flies, and beef heart. Even though, fruit fly maggots were not a common food source for Betta splendens, it's a common and popular live feed sold in aquarium shops here in MY as a live feed for large ornamental fishes like Arowana.

Material and Methods
This experiment uses 9 pairs (18 fishes) of Betta splendens of 4 till 8 weeks conditioned for a month (the broodstock should be around 8 till 16 weeks old). The fishes were fed with commercial pellets (there is no mention of the nutrients values of these pellets) twice daily during that month.

Experiments were done on three types of feed in 3 replicates:
(1) Commercial pellets x 3 pairs. Control group.
(2) Bloodworms x 3 pairs. Frozen bloodworms purchase from local pet shop.
(3) Fruit fly maggots x 3 pairs. Cultured using over-rippen banana left outdoor, eggs collected and hatched in container. Then the hatched maggots were collected and kept frozen in fridge.

The breeding conditions and procedure as follows:
(1) 1 or 2 days aged water with sea Indian Almond leaves.
(2) Male Betta was released first to build bubble nest.
(3) Female Betta was added but was separated in a separate transparent container.
(4) Female Betta was released once the bubble nest was constructed.
(5) Female was extracted once mating was done.

The number of eggs produced by each diet is shown below. We're quite surprised that commercial pellet yielded a higher result than Blood worms. There is no mention of nutrients content of the commercial pellet so it's quite hard to deduce why commercial pellet is better than live food. Nevertheless, the broodstock with fruit fly maggot diet produced the highest number of eggs.

The nutrients content of both live feed as follows:
(1) Blood worms: 52.8% of protein, 9.7% of fat, 0.38% of calcium and 0.90% of phosphorus.
(2) Fruit fly maggots: 40.3% of protein, 29.4% of fat, 0.59% of calcium and 2.30% of phosphorus.

The high fat and phosphorus may contribute to the high number of eggs spawned using fruit fly maggots as diet. However, there is no details on nutrient of the commercial pellet. Therefore, we can't reproduce this experiment and deduce that commercial pellet may not be a better choice than those two live feed.

What you're going to do with the knowledge you've gained?
(1) Learn how to culture fruit fly maggots to test the suitability of it as an alternative diet for Betta splendens for breeding purpose. Similarly, try with bloodworms as well.
(2) Check if we can breed the broodstock of age of 8 weeks or 2 months. Based on our observation, we don't think Betta fishes of 8 weeks have reach sexual maturity. 12 weeks or 3 months is considered just reaching adulthood.

What are the further unsolved questions?
(1) What are the dietary needs for broodstock to ensure fecundity (the ability to mass produce offspring) or reproductive performance?
(2) What are the feeding schedule in addition to the dietary in question (1)?
(3) As we have mentioned before, quite a few Betta splendens breeders sweared by Daphnia as its primary food source from larvae till adult. Comparison of diet should have includes Daphnia and Miona as well. What will be the expected results if both these two live diets were included?

Research Paper to Read: (2011) Masculinization of the ornamental Siamese fighting fish with oral hormonal administration

Source: ResearchGate.

(1) Oral administration of 17a-methyltestosterone (MT) hormone of 3 and 4 mg/kg doses resulted in 100% masculinization or all males within a spawn.

Why this paper?
Discussion with different breeders shared their experiences buying Betta sp. broodstock from neighbouring country (hint: north) that cannot or won't breed. They have long suspected that the broodstock was somehow treated with certain chemicals that make it harder for the pair to mate and spawn. We've read some papers that probably can explain the root cause of the broodstock that can't breed, masculinization. From early stage of larvae, Through exposure to MT hormone that reverse sex in Betta sp. from early stage of larvae, a breeder can control the sex of the fry by turning the spawn into almost all males Betta sp. This allows the breeder to gain more profits as the male Betta sp. fetches way higher prices compare to female Betta sp. in the ornamental fish market.

Material and methods
The research starts with fry production using 4 pairs of Betta sp. of crowntails, veiltails, and spaidtails strain in four separate 15 litres plastic tank. Once eggs have been fertilized it's extracted and removed to a separate bowls. The spawning was done into two sessions, once in January and another one in May where each experiment group produced around 400 fries. For each experiment group, equal number of 80 fries were placed into 5 separate 2 litres cages within a large 160 litres aquarium tank. The experiment designs in shown in the table below.

Feeding were done 6 times per day (assuming it's 4 hours interval) with different feeding post hatching schedule and diet. DPH is referring to days after post hatching.

(1) Experiment A
- 4 DPH till 7 DPH with artemia nauplii.
- Feeds with MT (Classic AAF-F) until 30 DPH
- Feeds with MY (Lucky Star 2) until 56 DPH.

(2) Experiment B
- 4 DPH till 11 DPH with artemia nauplii enriched with red pepper.
- Feeds with MT (Classic AAF-F) until 30 DPH
- Feeds with MY (Lucky Star 2) until 56 DPH.

The experimental group of A0 and B0 is the control group where no treatment was added. Experiment groups of A2, A3, A4, B3, and B4 shows 100% sex reversal. Mortality rates does not have significant statistical difference.

There are quite a number of confusion in this paper that raise many unanswered questions. Bar chart is not a suitable presentation to summarize the result of the experiment compare to a table with figure. It's very hard to visually identify which experimental group have yield 100% sex change to monosex population.

These treatment were used on ornamental fishes instead of farm fish for food consumption. Hence, it is recommended to use cheaper MT hormones to reduce cost and increase profit.

Further Questions
(1) Why the needs of two separate experiment groups done in two separate period (6 months interval)?
(2) Why both experiment groups have different diet and schedule feeding DPH?
(3) Is MT hormone really have 100% sex reversal impacts on Betta sp.? Can we consider that these fishes is 100% male or in between?
(4) What are the ecological side effects if these fishes were released in the wild?
(5) What are the possible legislative issues on using MT hormone?
(6) Does long exposure to MT hormone affects the mortality rates?

This Week I Learned 2019 - Week 05

Last week post or something else instead.

What else I've learned this week not within this post? Going through the fifth week of ornamental fish culture on fish breeding specifically in live bearer; eggs scatterer and eggs depositor; bubble­‐nest builder and mouth‐brooder. The review paper of this week is the study of effects of photoperiod on reproduction of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendensThe week was concluded with a Perl module review of API::Google.

How do you pick the best traits to breed Betta sp? If you watch the video below, typically it will take a few generations (if you're lucky) to obtain the good traits to develop a good line. How long? Roughly 4 generations which is around 2 to three years, provided that these broodstock reach maturity around 6 months and you've a quality traits to choose from.

Which show has the best NBA commentary? The Jump, the weekday daily discussion and debate show in ESPN on NBA. Compare to other NBA commentary shows, Rachel Nichols did a wonderful job setting the pace and keep the discussion going on. Commentary was always to the point and the viewer can always learn something new from the guests. Tracy McGrady and Jackie MacMullan combo was great with healthy debate.

How to improve your Bash-fu? Do everything in pure Bash. The main issue with shell script or terminal is we have too many choices and too many legacy baggages. Does having a software monoculture solve the issue with decision fatigue? Yeah, in some ways. I've been using Zsh for a while and there are some quirks that need some times to adapt to.

How to be successful? (via HN) Always debatable and subjective as certain things can be measurable (financially) or not (relationship). Perhaps when you have enough and be content, "moderation in all things." Or being healthy in term of physically and mentally. Maybe you can do what ever you want to do? Why not just read the opposite, advices from people who are not successful instead? When comes to advices, be careful of the survival bias. Maybe there is no such thing as success, a donkey is successful as a donkey.

Maybe reading through what people say before they die? (via HN) will let us reevaluate our definition of success. Nevertheless, this quote caught my attention when come to your own career. However, if you still love what you're doing after so many years, effectiveness is just the side effect.
"You don't want to be in a career where people who have been doing it for two years can be as effective as people who have been doing it for twenty—your rate of learning should always be high."

Research Paper to Read: (2012) Effects of photoperiod on reproduction of Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens

Source: Research Gate.

(1) Photoperiod of ratio of 16h light : 8h darkness (spring) and 12h light : 12h darkness (summer) yield optimum reproduction and growth.

Why this paper?
As we have limited space, all our Betta sp. breeding projects were done within an indoor environment. For observation and appreciation purpose, the breeding and growing tanks were equipped with typical T5 LED lights. In the past, we kept the light on for 24 hours because we want to maintain the growth of the aquatic plants. Little we realized, it just dawned to us that animals and plants should follow the natural photoperiods just like in the wild. This begs the question, what is the optimum photoperiods when breeding and keeping Betta sp. Hence, the relevant of reading and understanding this paper.

Material and methods
This research includes 30 matured pairs or 60 fishes of super delta strain. On average, the weight and length of male is 1.92±0.28g and 3.84±0.13cm and female is females 3.72±0.18 cm and 1.72±0.23 g. (Note that the female size is roughly the same as male and typically for breeding, the female size should be smaller). These fishes were hosted within a 2 litres jar.

The design of the experiments for 5 treatments and 6 replicates for each pair of fishes as follows:
(1) 8L:16D
(2) 12L:12D
(3) 16L:8D
(4) 20L:4D
(5) 24L:0D

The breeding conditions for the next 150 days or 5 months are:
(1) Fluorescent light of 60 cm with 200 watt around 500-lux controlled by analogue timer.
(2) Total water changes every two days.
(3) Feeding done twice daily using diet of 45% crude protein and 12% fat in light photoperiod.
(4) Water treatment conditions are: pH 6.9±0.3, dissolved oxygen >5.0 mg L,-1 and ammonia <0.1 mg. L-1. Water parameters are monitored weekly.

The graphs below shows that photoperiod of 16L:8D and 12L:12D shows the significant differences in frequency of spawn, eggs volumes, and fecundity. 24L:0D yields the worst performance of all the measurements.

Does long exposure to light stresses the fishes which affects the production of the spawn size? The result indicates that this may be the main reason. Long light exposure is not natural and does not simulate a natural photoperiod (12L:12D) in outdoor or in the wild. Therefore, extra care needed to control the photoperiod as close as possible following the nature.

Further Questions
(1) Can we obtain similar result if the design and experiment was done in the outdoor environment where the photoperiod was controlled by exposure to sunlight?
(2) What kind of exposure to sunlight is suitable enough? The general consensus among breeder is that you cannot expose the fishes to direct sunlight but within the shaded area.

Research Paper to Read: (2016) Dietary crude protein levels for juvenile beta

Source: ResearchGate.

(1) The range of 30% till 33% crude protein (CP) level is the minimum acceptable level to ensure optimal growth and feeding efficiency for juvenile Betta fish.

Why this paper?
While breeding juvenile Betta fish, instead of live food, there are numerous formulated feeds in the market that we can use. Different brands have different formulation and CP level. What are the acceptable range of CP level to ensure optimal growth and reduce wastage?

Material and Methods
This experiment includes 192 juvenile Betta fish of 30 days age with initial average weight of 0.11 ± 0.02g. These fishes were grouped into 6 groups of CP level with 4 repetitions where each tank contains 8 fishes as shown below:

(1) 27% CP x4 repetitions
(2) 31% CP x4 repetitions
(3) 35% CP x4 repetitions
(4) 39% CP x4 repetitions
(5) 43% CP x4 repetitions
(6) 47% CP x4 repetitions

The breeding conditions for the next 30 days as follows:

(1) 6 litres tank with biological filter.
(2) Airting with temperature 26 ± 1°C.
(3) Feeding (done ad libitum) three times at 07:00, 13:00, and 17:00)
(4) Tank siphoned weekly. (Didn't mention percentages of water changes)

The diet was self-produced formulation feeds using the ingredients shown in table below. The feed was produced by fine grounding the ingredients and mix manually with water around temperature of 50 ± 5°C for starch gelatinisation. Pellets were produced using a meat grinder and dried using oven for 24 hours at 50°C.

As the table below shown, CP of 31% and 35% have the highest weight gain and growth rate. Excess CP slow down growth due to extra energy need to catabolise additional protein and amino acids.

Different fishes have different biological structure and diet needs. Hence, different fishes needs different CP levels. There was one master breeder which overfed the Betta fish to speed up the growth for competition. In his experience, overfed may also lead of loss of fishes as shown in previous table.

Further Questions
(1) What is the relationship between CP percentage and feeding frequency?
(2) What are the CP level needed for adult Betta fish or fry?

Research Paper to Read: (2004) Effect of feeding frequency on growth and fecundity in an ornamental fish, Betta splendens (Regan)

Source: ResearchGate.

(1) Two meals per day is the optimum frequency for growth, gonad (a testis or ovary) development, and fecundity (fertility on producing eggs).
(2) Don't overfed (three times per day) your female Bettas as it will increase it's mortality rate and reduce eggs production.
(3) 14 days is sufficient enough for subsequent spawn for a female Betta.

Why this paper?
One of the question when rearing and breeding Betta splendens is how frequent we should feed the fish to achieve optimum growth and speed up breeding. There are many inconsistent advice given by different breeders on the number of times the fish should be fed. Nevertheless, going through scientific literature will give us a baseline to feed our fishes at the optimum level without unnecessary food waste. However, this does not discounts the vast years of experience of master breeders as typical scientific research was done once compare to years of multiple trials and errors of some breeders.

Material and Methods
This experiment includes 375 juveniles Betta of 30 days old with weight of 0.045±0.01 g and lenght of 14.43±2.2 mm (not sure full length of just body only). The fishes were grouped into 15 groups of 25 each with three sets of each feeding frequency as shown below:

(1) One meal in three days (at 6:00).
(2) One meal in two days (at 6:00).
(3) One meal in one day (at 6:00).
(4) Two meals a day (6:00, 18:00).
(5) Three meals a day (6:00, 12:00, 18:00).

Breeding conditions for 77 days, roughly 2.5 months.

(1) 110-l circular cement cistern with measurement of 53.34 x 45.72 cm (the rounded container typically used by Thai Betta farm).
(2) 50l unchlorinated well fresh water. Tank were drained bi-weekly (didn't mentioned how much water)
(3) Temperature averaged 28±1C,
(4) pH 7.8±0.05.
(5) Water hardness 316±15 mg CaCO3/l, ammonia 1.01±0.12 mg/l and DO 4.04 ppm.
(6) Fresh minced beef liver (protein 35.44%, fat 3.86%, ash, 13.91%, and nitrogen free extract 46.79%)

Calculation of each type of measurements as follows:

(1) Growth. Calculation initial dry weight using electrical monopan balance. Five fishes were sacrificed (not sure how). Weight is determined every 14 days.
(2) Gonad. Calculation initial gonad weight using electrical monopan balance and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Three female fishes sacrificed (not sure how) every 14 days.
(3) Spawning. Upon attaining sexual maturity (did not mention when), two pairs of male and females where selected to spawn in a plastic container with water depth of 15cm. Eggs (hatched or unhatched) counted using sterilized needle.

While the growth rate was expected for those with higher frequency feeding, there was no significant differences between two meals and three meals per day. Interestingly result of spawning size. As the result below shown, if the female Betta was overfeed (three meals per day), the eggs production will decrease. We're quite surprised that second and third spawn yields even more eggs after every 14 days.

It seemed what we did with our breeding project was significantly not helpful to our female Bettas. To increase eggs productions, we've fed both male and female Bettas four meals per day. The result have shown that overfed actually decreased the eggs production and can cause bloating and dropsy. We've observed some of our female Bettas experienced such symptoms after mating.

Further Questions
(1) The paper did not address the impact of different meal plans for juveniles fish from 1st till 30th day. It only accounts for fish starting for 30 days old.
(2) Why not jar each juveniles fish and measure its growth, gonad development, and fecundity individually in separate container instead of one large 110-l circular cement cistern.
(3) To prevent bloating, some breeders skip Sunday meal so that the fish can fast to clear out all its waste. Will this have any significant differences to the result for those 3 meals per day?

Research Paper to Read: (2018) Minimal water volume for intensively producing male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan, 1910)

Source: Research Gate.

(1) 150 mL water volume within 2 - 9 cm depth should be the minimum and optimum water volume to rear individual male Siamese fighting fish.
(2) Jar the fish when it reaches 1.5 months old (6 weeks) and sell it at 4 months old (16 weeks).

Why this paper?
Betta fish (B. splendens) is an aggressive and territorial tropical fish. To defend its territories, a Betta fish will flare its gill and spread its fins. Furthermore, it will bite its intruder. Therefore, upon reaching adulthood, the male Betta will need to be separated and jarred into separate and smaller container. However, a Betta fish spawn, on average, contains few hundreds of fries. Hence, to fully utilize available spaces and giving the Betta fish the optimum growing environment, what is the minimum water volume or container size that can achieve this? Our observation is most breeders will use several cost saving ways to jar individual male Betta fish. These consists of using recycle mineral water bottle, thin glass alcohol bottle, or drinking plastic bags.

Material and Methods
This is a randomized design experiment of 5 water treatments and 15 replicates. First, one-month old solid-red male Siamese fighting fishes were purchased and individually acclimatized in cylindrical plastic breakers (7.5cm diameter x 12.5cm height) of water volume of 250mL for 2 weeks (not sure why?). Then, 15 fishes (n = 15) of similar size (0.97 ± 0.01 g initial body weight)were evenly and individually distributed into 5 water volumes of 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mL glass aquaria (3.5cm width x 8cm length x 20cm height).

Breeding conditions for 8 weeks or 2 months as follows:
(1) Commercial floating pellets (10% moisture,  46% crude protein, 6% crude lipid, 5% crude,
fiber, and 12% crude ash).
(2) Feeding done twice daily (08:00h and 17:00h) at 2% of body weight.
(3) Photoperiod of 12h (light) : 12h (dark)
(4) Uneaten excess diet were siphoned after 30 minutes after feeding.
(5) 80% water changes with dechlorinated stock water within 3 consecutive days.

Since it's too long and quite complicated (I don't really understand it), I skipped the part on what measurements and tools used.

Only the results for water quality and overall growth were discussed here.

Since leftover food were siphoned, the only contributing factor to water quality is the ammonia level due to excreted water by the fish. The lower the water volume, the higher concentration of ammonia level and lower pH level as shown in table below for water volume of 100mL.

Large water volume (300 mL) will lead to bigger fish growth (standard length) and at the same time, allows more space for increase movement (like bubble nest making) within the container, and thus, low weight gain.

How big is 150mL? The video below will give you some idea. Should you use this minimum water volume for optimum growth? Depends. If you have large quantity of fishes, limited spaces, and plenty of time for water changes, then this should be the right option. If not, use the largest water volume possible so less than frequent water changes. When breeding and rearing Betta fishes, water changes is the only task that consumes most of your time.

Further Questions
(1) Will plastic bottle instead of glass aquaria have any significant effects on the experiment?
(2) When do we start to jar the male Betta fish? Is it 1.5 month of age when it starts to show aggression behaviour or when it reaches certain size of 2.5cm?
(3) Will there any significant changes if the water were treated with Indian Almond leaves?
(4) Is there any significant impact to the result if these fishes were fed with live food sources?
(5) Large water volume means less frequent water change. Is there any impacts on frequency of water change to the result?

Research Paper to Read: (2010) Growth and Survival of Siamese Fighting Fish, Betta Splendens, Larvae at Low Salinity and With Different Diets

Source: Research Gate.

(1) Combination of natural live foods (Chlorella sp., Rotifers, and Artemia nauplii) ensures good growth rate.
(2) Salinity of 5 ppt using non-iodized salt prevents the Piscinoodinium sp. parasite which is the causative agent of velvet rust disease.

Why this paper?
Betta fish (B. splendens) is one of the most popular ornamental fish and it's known to be easily breed. While there are numerous information (websites, books, and videos), most of these information are experiences gained through casual observation rather than scientific research. Two questions were raised during our breeding projects, how can we accelerate the growth and increase the survival rate of our Betta fish larvae (still have yolk-sac and unable to feed themselves) and later as fries (free swimming and can feed themselves)? This paper was written to answer both questions by investigating the best nutrients for the Betta larvae and fries for the first 15 days.

Materials and Methods
The larvaes and fry were the results of a pair of sexually mature (not sure how many months) B. splendens (not sure which species). The pair was fed twice daily (anytime) with flake food and live brine shrimp. Larvae were jararred at 3rd day into 18 round-bottom glass flasks (2L) where each flask contained 10 larvae. These were duplicated into 3 sets as follows:

(1) Treatment: Natural, Salinity: 0 ppt
(2) Treatment: Natural, Salinity: 5 ppt
(3) Treatment: AD + LA, Salinity: 0 ppt
(4) Treatment: AD + LA, Salinity: 5 ppt
(5) Treatment: SDLA + AD, Salinity: 0 ppt
(6) Treatment: SDLA + AD, Salinity: 5 ppt

Culture condition of the larvae as follows:

(1) Salinity was obtained by adding non-iodized cooking salt (aquarium salt should works as well) in portion of 5g/L in distilled water (all minerals were removed).
(2) Temperature set to 26C. (How do they maintain the temperature constantly?)
(3) Photoperiod, 12h light : 12h dark.
(4) 80% water changes on daily basis.

Below is the exact daily rations grouped into three stages of the larvae or fries lifecycle of 15 days. Larvae were fed four-times per day in a 4 hours intervals (0800, 1200, 1600, and 2000h).

Details of the diet with photos (from Wikipedia) as follows:

(1) Freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp.

(2) Rotifers (Brachionus rotundiformis, B. plicatilis "S type").

(3) Artemia nauplii (Brine Shrimp).

(4) Semi-purified microbound formulated diet (particle size 250–450 μm) with ingredients of (37.4% lipids, 46.2% crude protein and 5.6% ash)

As the table below have shown, natural diet yielded the best survival rate and second in growth rate. The total average length of the fries is more precise to the observed and non scientific measurements of the Betta Growth Table.

Why natural live food diet compare to formulated diet gave the optimum survival rate? Betta larvae or fries naturally eat moving living organisms instead of lifeless static food pellets. Furthermore, 100% survival rate was achieved with natural diet and non-iodined salt (5ppt salinity), which prevent the Piscinoodinium sp. parasite which is the causative agent of velvet rust disease as shown in figure below.

This is another photo (source: Wikipedia) showing the actual infection of the parasit.

I'm not sure why the diet of LA + AD with salinity cultured the largest growth length. Unfortunately, this was not discussed in the paper or did I miss or misunderstood it?

Further Questions
(1) When is the sexually mature age for both Betta male or female fish?
(2) How does the frequency of daily feeding (2, 3, or 4 times) influences the larvae and fries growth?
(3) How to calculate the salinity of 5ppt corresponds to the container size?
(4) How does photoperiod influence the growth, survival, or reproduction?
(5) How many percent of daily water changes needed?
(6) Why we need to perform daily water changes?
(7) Does distilled water essential for reproduction, growth, and survival of larvae or fries?
(8) Does the percentage of protein in formulated diet influences the growth and health?
(9) What is the range of salinity level for breeding Betta?

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20181223 : HMPK Super Red (M) x HMPK Super Red (M)

The fourth breeding project for Super Red Betta and the continuity (the same pair) of the breeding project, BSL20181105 which was started almost two months ago. We hope to achieve two goals on this project. First, increase the number of Super Red Betta we have right now so we can have more pair to breed and fix in coming generations. Second, determine how many times a female can mate and breed. From what we read online (not scientific proven or we haven't found any literature on this yet), a female Betta can breed for three till six times.

After both male and female Betta was removed from the breeding container in BSL20181105, we put them next to each other and feed both fishes well. Furthermore, we placed both fishes into Indian Almond leaves water and regular water changes (siphoned the waste and 25% water replacement). You can said it was under constant conditioning for almost two months. When both fishes were making bubbles then we decided to proceed ahead.

One thing we observed was male Betta was under constant stress and succumbed to illness after we've separated it from the fry. Hence, we tried to create an stable condition for both pair, especially the male. Survival rate of the pair is as crucial as the fry.

Log Notes
Since we have already conditioned this pair for almost a while (both already making bubbles), we just put two fishes into a large breeding container without separation and waiting for the male to make bubble nest.

2018-12-23 (1st week)
No bubble nest seen so we're assuming that both fishes were not ready to mate yet. However, yesterday was Dongzi Festival, which ended the raining season and weather became more sunny and windy.

We're quite surprised that we saw some fry were swimming vertically. Immediately removed the female Betta and the fish was health and swam actively. We did not use fresh new water but instead water from the breeding container so that the fish won't be stress due to water hardness changes. We will remove the male after one week if the fry manage to survive that long. As shown below, the fry was barely visible but the male was busy picking them up to the bubble nest.

2018-12-30 (2nd week)
Male Betta was removed. The usual daily BBS feeding.

2019-01-06 (3rd week)
Daily BBS feeding.

2019-01-13 (4th week)
Daily BBS feeding. Some juvenile fishes were seemed to have grown. Not really a large spawn compare to previous spawn.

2019-01-20 (5th week)
Daily BBS feeding and first 50% water changes.

1/ We've read that a male Betta can mate with several female Betta within the span of few weeks. A healthy female, will need 7 to 14 days to ovulate eggs and it can breed three to six time in its life span. But this is scientifically unproven observation from other breeders we've read only.

This Week I Learned 2018 - Week 50

Last week post or something else from the past instead.

What is the one crucial thing when buying insurance? Make sure it's guaranteed renewable. If not, after a big claim, the said issue will be exclude from your policy upon your renewal. If you have an insurance policy but not guarantee renewable, make it has unlimited coverage. Read the Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM)'s guidelines on this. Meanwhile, something related, when comes to insurance claims, you can claim from multiple insurer for Personal Accident (PA) or life. For medical, only can claim from one insurer.

Do we need to push so hard for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education among young people? Yes and no. Yes, if we want to stay competitive in this industry. No, this will create oversupply of labour and thus wages are kept low. Thus, does not really justify for young people to go into STEM industry where wages are too low and education fee was too high for those looking for good university.

What are the best books of 2018? (via HN and Reddit) Well, you can go through the list from NPRGoodreads, The New Yorker, Science Friday, The Wall Street Journal (politics, children, science fiction, and mysteries), Esquire, Amazon Best Sellers or by category (note best seller), The Guardian, Powell, Five Books (science, fiction, and politics), Library Journal, People, Mental Floss, Indigo, Bill Gates himself (summer and winter), Barnes & Noble, Book Page, Financial Times, History Today, Space  (old and new), Smithsonian (history, science, travel, food, and children), and AV Club. There is one book that caught my attention and found in most of the recommended lists, Madeline Miller's Circe. If you don't have a good material to read for the new year, just check the best books of last year.

What happened when bad water quality and monsoon month (December) meet? Twenty dead fishes. Similar thing happened last year around December where some Betta fishes were dying in mass. Is it water hardness, pH level, ammonia level, nitrite level, or diseases? Our conclusion with  some googling suggested that all possible reason. Drastic water change (like 100%) during raining season will shock the fishes leading to low immune system. Furthermore, irregular water changes increases the possibility of ammonia poisoning overfeed without removing the remains will lead to nitrite poisoning.

One obvious symptom was group of Betta fishes cuddle together at the corner at the tank (see photo below). Last year, the same thing happened to our female sorority tank and we thought because these fishes were "bonding". Our naivety caused the total wipeout of all the female Bettas.

How do you troubleshoot DHCP issue within a container? Use tcpdump. `lxdbr0` is the default bridge network adapter used by LXD.
sudo tcpdump -ni lxdbr0 port 67

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20181202 : HMPK Metallic Blue (S) x HMPK Metallic Blue (S)

Yet another sibling pair but this time a metallic blue pair. This is the continuity of the previous breeding pair BSL20181105 (Super Red) and BSL20181005 (Super Yellow). Again, the plan was to breed a sibling pair to produce as much fry as much so we can continue breeding multiple generation. If everything goes well and lucky, this will take several generations of breeding.

Male: HMPK Metalic Blue (S)
Age: 4+ months
Temperaments: Normal.
Size: Small (2.5cm body only)
Grade: C

Not the best one we can obtain but nevertheless, the male Betta was healthy and quite active. We fed it well and kept it within the Indian Almond leaves water just to make sure to quarantine it well. Nevertheless, this fish was fresh from the farm and bred in natural environment and fed with live food. Surely, it's better than those bred in house like us.

Female: HMPK Metalic Blue (S)
Age: 4+ months
Temperaments: Highly active.
Size: Small (2.5cm body only)
Grade: B

When we first bought this female Betta, it was so small but we've no choice, there were no female Betta available for this colour. Nevertheless, we decided to proceed ahead as we're confident to condition this female until it's ready to breed. Took us three months to make sure this female was well fed and always in Indian Almond leaves water. Just in case to prevent sickness. Luckily this female turned out to be healthy and very active.

Log Notes
Bought this pair from the Betta farm. The female was so small and we're worried that it may not be a female at all. Nevertheless, we trust the wisdom of the said Betta breeder.

2018-12-01 (1st week)
The pair mated. The female was immediately separated from the male and put into a plastic container. Since we don't have enough overnight water, the female will stay a while within the breeding box.

Female removed so it won't interfere with the male. The male moved the nest several times, most probably of interruption from us.

Black dot or hatched fry were seen in the bubble nest. Estimate the spawn size was roughly 100-plus.

2018-12-09 (2nd week)
Do plan in advanced when you want to breed the fish. The first two weeks are quite crucial as the fry needs to be fed constantly. Otherwise, the whole spawn will starve to death. Hence, if you need to travel, don't breed and also good to have hatch two batch of BBS, in case one batch does not hatch properly. Especially true if you're using expired BBS. We feed the fish two times per day and the growth and colour was noticeable.

2018-12-16 (3rd week)

1/ Always prepare backup food for the first two weeks in case the BBS did not hatch.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20181105 : HMPK Super Red (M) x HMPK Super Red (M)

Another sibling pair we bought similar to breeding project, BSL20181005. We tends to get sibling pair so we can obtain the same colour as the parent Betta instead of mixing pair from different colours. Our previous breeding projects produce offspring with less than desire colours (as in like Rojak) as shown below.

For breeding Super Red Betta, this is our third breeding project. Breeding project BSL20180518, did produce good offspring, although the number obtained was way too small, roughly around eight and sadly no female Betta at all. Another breeding project BSL20180316, although the female was not a Super Red, did yield one (yes, just one) surviving Super Red. Worst still, it's a very small size male Betta.

What we hope for this breeding project? More female Bettas so we can continue our breeding project for coming generation.

Male: HMPK Super Red (M)
Age: 4+ months
Temperaments: Sluggish and slow.
Size: Medium (3.5cm body only)
Grade: C

When we first bought this male, the movement was quite sluggish and slow. Furthermore, the anal fin was long and caudal fin was not symmetry. Nevertheless, the body size was large and good.

Female: HMPK Super Red (M)
Age: 4+ months
Temperaments: Curious and active.
Size: Medium (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

Nothing special about this female Betta. Just the body was quite thin and long.

Log Notes
Bought this pair from the Betta farm.

Start conditioning. We don't use the usual glass aquarium as breeding tank but a styrofoam box instead.  Reason being that we want to try different approach using different container. Furthermore, styrofoam box ensures both fishes will not be disturbed and keep the temperature stable.

Mating happened and eggs were observed in the bubble nest.

Some fries were seen swimming freely. Estimated that the this spawn was around 60-plus or more. Based on past experience, not all the fry will survive during these breeding period. As usual, the female was removed immediately.

2018-11-11 (1st week)
We've decided not to use leaving-father-with-fry method and removed the male Betta immediately once.

2018-11-18 (2nd week)
BBS feeding as usual. Growing rate were inconsistent among the fishes.

2018-11-25 (3rd week)
BBS feeding as usual. Growing rate were inconsistent among the fishes.

2018-12-02 (4th week)
Total fry count was around 30-plus, half of what observed initially in the first week.

2018-12-09 (5th week)
To increase the growth of these fishes, we decided to feed BBS twice per day.

2018-12-16 (6th week)
We continued to feed BBS twice on daily basis and slowly mixed BBS with to pellet (69% protein). Not all but some fishes started to eat pellet which we hope we can switch it over in coming weeks. Furthermore, we also siphoned more waste from the bottom of the container and 25% water changes.

2018-12-23 (7th week)
The fry started to notice and eat more pellet. Some already swam to the surface expecting food when we opened the lid of the container. Expected growth was quite behind at this week if checked against the Betta fish growth table. The largest was roughly around 1cm (body only).

2018-12-30 (8th week)
Regular daily feeding and water changes.

2019-01-06 (9th week)
Regular daily feeding and water changes.

2019-01-13 (10th week)
Moved all fishes to glass aquarium with filtering so we can monitor it more closely and reduce unnecessary water changes on daily basis. We also started to jar a few selected larger juvenile fishes (around 2-plus cm) as these fishes were larger than most of the under-developed fish in the growing tank.

2019-01-20 (11th week)
Regular daily feeding and water changes. Notice that we have quite a lot of Cambodian, light or pink coloured body with strong red coloured fins. It seemed this is a common (see the observation by other breeder) and we have to be more patience and see how it work out in coming weeks.
The red color can be late to appear as well. Usually it starts with red streaks in the fins, until the fins are completely covered and the fish looks like a traditional cambodian. Then the body begins to redden, and I've found that the ones that begin reddening earliest end up with the most intense end color. Others will look like they are going to remain cambodian or turn into yellows, but then suddenly start coloring up. These are the ones that have the most satiny shade of red, but it is usually lighter than the 'ideal', and, in my case anyway, is evident of the cambodian gene at work. 
2019-01-27 (12th week)
More feeding and daily water changes as usual.

2019-02-03 (13th week)
More feeding and daily water changes as usual.

2019-02-10 (14th week)
More feeding and daily water changes as usual.

2019-02-17 (15th week)
The male Betta did not survived due to infection. We tried to breed the male with another female pink HM but didn't realized that the female was not fertilize with egg but was compromised with Dropsy. Jarred more juvenile fishes with full body colour as some were seen to have torn fins due to fighting. We also started to cull (move to another tank) some fishes with really small body sizes or abnormal body growth.

2019-02-24 (16th week)
Switched diet to frozen blood worms.

1/ Pick a good quality male Betta if possible as it will save us more time instead of fixing any defect issues in multiple breeding projects. We can't find any so far and the only way for us was to breed as much as possible and select the best and continue fixing any defects in subsequent generation.

2/ Do not breed the pair of fishes with other pair to prevent infection as the pair of fishes needs time to recover due to fatigue and stress of mating.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20181005 : HMPK Super Yellow (S) x HMPK Super Yellow (S)

Another sibling pair we bought and this time, a super yellow pair. It's very hard to get a super yellow HMPK and moreover a pair. We're tired to look around for a super yellow HMPK and might as well bought a pair and breed on our own. The plan is to breeding multiple generations of Betta pair to create a lineage.

Male: HMPK Super Yellow (S)
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Curious and active.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: C

As you can see below, not a good grade and the fish is quite small in size. However, since SO like this male Betta, we decided to get this.

Female: HMPK Super Yellow (S)
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Curious and active.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

More nimble and aggressive than the male Betta. Probably the healthiest female we've seen so far.

Log Notes
We went to a Betta farm and bought this pair of super yellow HMPK siblings. SO was excited and always wanted to breed a true super yellow pair since the passing our yellow HMPK.

Conditioning process started but we put the pair of fish into separate jar but both can observe each other.

We put the female Betta in once we felt that the male Betta have already built a large bubble nest. Within hours, both fishes were seen mating. We removed the female Betta immediately after the male Betta was seen chasing it.

2018-10-06 (1st week)
Fry were swimming vertically and started to feed on BBS. SO decided to keep the male within the breeding tank since this male Betta were caring and not aggressive.

2018-10-13 (2nd week)
The fry were growing at expected rate and it's quite a big spawn, roughly estimated around 100-plus.

2018-10-20 (3rd week)
Few survived the outbreak (we're not sure the actual reason) but suspected that we may overfeed, forgot the feed it, or spooked the male Betta causing it to eat all the fry. Nevertheless, we took out the male Betta into its container and try to salvage the remaining fry, which was roughly around 10. We fear that the whole spawn will be wipe out, just like previous failed spawn.

2018-10-20 (4th week)
The remaining ten did not survive except just one fry, the alpha or largest among the group. We cleaned up the whole breeding tank and extracted the one and only fry to its own container. We now have a unique situation, first in our case where we have a spawn of one of all our breeding project.

2018-10-27 (5th week)
The one and only fry was doing well but growth was quite slow and limiting.

2018-11-03 (6th week)
Still surviving but the growth rate was not improving. We fed more BBS and the fry seemed to have taken it but still, growth was slow. Contrary to what we read, isn't a fry with plenty of spaces without any competition should grow quite fast and well?

2018-11-10 (7th week)
Maybe we're not changing the water frequently enough which leads to slow growth?

2018-11-10 (8th week)
The last surviving fry did not make it. Thus the conclusion of this breeding project.

1/ Our visit to the Betta farm reinforced that Indian Almond leaf is crucial to maintain a healthy Betta fish, especially for breeding.

2/ To be safe, do not keep the Betta male withing the spawn, especially for those hard to find pair. Remember to remove the Betta male as soon as the fry start to swim freely.

3/ If you still want to try the father-with-fry method, do it only for non-virgin female Betta. Best not to waste the eggs.