Showing posts with label betta. Show all posts
Showing posts with label betta. Show all posts

Research Paper to Read: (2018) Minimal water volume for intensively producing male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan, 1910)

Source: Research Gate.

(1) 150 mL water volume within 2 - 9 cm depth should be the minimum and optimum water volume to rear individual male Siamese fighting fish.
(2) Jar the fish when it reaches 1.5 months old (6 weeks) and sell it at 4 months old (16 weeks).

Why this paper?
Betta fish (B. splendens) is an aggressive and territorial tropical fish. To defend its territories, a Betta fish will flare its gill and spread its fins. Furthermore, it will bite its intruder. Therefore, upon reaching adulthood, the male Betta will need to be separated and jarred into separate and smaller container. However, a Betta fish spawn, on average, contains few hundreds of fries. Hence, to fully utilize available spaces and giving the Betta fish the optimum growing environment, what is the minimum water volume or container size that can achieve this? Our observation is most breeders will use several cost saving ways to jar individual male Betta fish. These consists of using recycle mineral water bottle, thin glass alcohol bottle, or drinking plastic bags.

Material and Methods
This is a randomized design experiment of 5 water treatments and 15 replicates. First, one-month old solid-red male Siamese fighting fishes were purchased and individually acclimatized in cylindrical plastic breakers (7.5cm diameter x 12.5cm height) of water volume of 250mL for 2 weeks (not sure why?). Then, 15 fishes (n = 15) of similar size (0.97 ± 0.01 g initial body weight)were evenly and individually distributed into 5 water volumes of 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mL glass aquaria (3.5cm width x 8cm length x 20cm height).

Breeding conditions for 8 weeks or 2 months as follows:
(1) Commercial floating pellets (10% moisture,  46% crude protein, 6% crude lipid, 5% crude,
fiber, and 12% crude ash).
(2) Feeding done twice daily (08:00h and 17:00h) at 2% of body weight.
(3) Photoperiod of 12h (light) : 12h (dark)
(4) Uneaten excess diet were siphoned after 30 minutes after feeding.
(5) 80% water changes with dechlorinated stock water within 3 consecutive days.

Since it's too long and quite complicated (I don't really understand it), I skipped the part on what measurements and tools used.

Only the results for water quality and overall growth were discussed here.

Since leftover food were siphoned, the only contributing factor to water quality is the ammonia level due to excreted water by the fish. The lower the water volume, the higher concentration of ammonia level and lower pH level as shown in table below for water volume of 100mL.

Large water volume (300 mL) will lead to bigger fish growth (standard length) and at the same time, allows more space for increase movement (like bubble nest making) within the container, and thus, low weight gain.

How big is 150mL? The video below will give you some idea. Should you use this minimum water volume for optimum growth? Depends. If you have large quantity of fishes, limited spaces, and plenty of time for water changes, then this should be the right option. If not, use the largest water volume possible so less than frequent water changes. When breeding and rearing Betta fishes, water changes is the only task that consumes most of your time.

Further Questions
(1) Will plastic bottle instead of glass aquaria have any significant effects on the experiment?
(2) When do we start to jar the male Betta fish? Is it 1.5 month of age when it starts to show aggression behaviour or when it reaches certain size of 2.5cm?
(3) Will there any significant changes if the water were treated with Indian Almond leaves?
(4) Is there any significant impact to the result if these fishes were fed with live food sources?
(5) Large water volume means less frequent water change. Is there any impacts on frequency of water change to the result?

Research Paper to Read: (2010) Growth and Survival of Siamese Fighting Fish, Betta Splendens, Larvae at Low Salinity and With Different Diets

Source: Research Gate.

(1) Combination of natural live foods (Chlorella sp., Rotifers, and Artemia nauplii) ensures good growth rate.
(2) Salinity of 5 ppt using non-iodized salt prevents the Piscinoodinium sp. parasite which is the causative agent of velvet rust disease.

Why this paper?
Betta fish (B. splendens) is one of the most popular ornamental fish and it's known to be easily breed. While there are numerous information (websites, books, and videos), most of these information are experiences gained through casual observation rather than scientific research. Two questions were raised during our breeding projects, how can we accelerate the growth and increase the survival rate of our Betta fish larvae (still have yolk-sac and unable to feed themselves) and later as fries (free swimming and can feed themselves)? This paper was written to answer both questions by investigating the best nutrients for the Betta larvae and fries for the first 15 days.

Materials and Methods
The larvaes and fry were the results of a pair of sexually mature (not sure how many months) B. splendens (not sure which species). The pair was fed twice daily (anytime) with flake food and live brine shrimp. Larvae were jararred at 3rd day into 18 round-bottom glass flasks (2L) where each flask contained 10 larvae. These were duplicated into 3 sets as follows:

(1) Treatment: Natural, Salinity: 0 ppt
(2) Treatment: Natural, Salinity: 5 ppt
(3) Treatment: AD + LA, Salinity: 0 ppt
(4) Treatment: AD + LA, Salinity: 5 ppt
(5) Treatment: SDLA + AD, Salinity: 0 ppt
(6) Treatment: SDLA + AD, Salinity: 5 ppt

Culture condition of the larvae as follows:

(1) Salinity was obtained by adding non-iodized cooking salt (aquarium salt should works as well) in portion of 5g/L in distilled water (all minerals were removed).
(2) Temperature set to 26C. (How do they maintain the temperature constantly?)
(3) Photoperiod, 12h light : 12h dark.
(4) 80% water changes on daily basis.

Below is the exact daily rations grouped into three stages of the larvae or fries lifecycle of 15 days. Larvae were fed four-times per day in a 4 hours intervals (0800, 1200, 1600, and 2000h).

Details of the diet with photos (from Wikipedia) as follows:

(1) Freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp.

(2) Rotifers (Brachionus rotundiformis, B. plicatilis "S type").

(3) Artemia nauplii (Brine Shrimp).

(4) Semi-purified microbound formulated diet (particle size 250–450 μm) with ingredients of (37.4% lipids, 46.2% crude protein and 5.6% ash)

As the table below have shown, natural diet yielded the best survival rate and second in growth rate. The total average length of the fries is more precise to the observed and non scientific measurements of the Betta Growth Table.

Why natural live food diet compare to formulated diet gave the optimum survival rate? Betta larvae or fries naturally eat moving living organisms instead of lifeless static food pellets. Furthermore, 100% survival rate was achieved with natural diet and non-iodined salt (5ppt salinity), which prevent the Piscinoodinium sp. parasite which is the causative agent of velvet rust disease as shown in figure below.

This is another photo (source: Wikipedia) showing the actual infection of the parasit.

I'm not sure why the diet of LA + AD with salinity cultured the largest growth length. Unfortunately, this was not discussed in the paper or did I miss or misunderstood it?

Further Questions
(1) When is the sexually mature age for both Betta male or female fish?
(2) How does the frequency of daily feeding (2, 3, or 4 times) influences the larvae and fries growth?
(3) How to calculate the salinity of 5ppt corresponds to the container size?
(4) How does photoperiod influence the growth, survival, or reproduction?
(5) How many percent of daily water changes needed?
(6) Why we need to perform daily water changes?
(7) Does distilled water essential for reproduction, growth, and survival of larvae or fries?
(8) Does the percentage of protein in formulated diet influences the growth and health?
(9) What is the range of salinity level for breeding Betta?

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20181223 : HMPK Super Red (M) x HMPK Super Red (M)

The fourth breeding project for Super Red Betta and the continuity (the same pair) of the breeding project, BSL20181105 which was started almost two months ago. We hope to achieve two goals on this project. First, increase the number of Super Red Betta we have right now so we can have more pair to breed and fix in coming generations. Second, determine how many times a female can mate and breed. From what we read online (not scientific proven or we haven't found any literature on this yet), a female Betta can breed for three till six times.

After both male and female Betta was removed from the breeding container in BSL20181105, we put them next to each other and feed both fishes well. Furthermore, we placed both fishes into Indian Almond leaves water and regular water changes (siphoned the waste and 25% water replacement). You can said it was under constant conditioning for almost two months. When both fishes were making bubbles then we decided to proceed ahead.

One thing we observed was male Betta was under constant stress and succumbed to illness after we've separated it from the fry. Hence, we tried to create an stable condition for both pair, especially the male. Survival rate of the pair is as crucial as the fry.

Log Notes
Since we have already conditioned this pair for almost a while (both already making bubbles), we just put two fishes into a large breeding container without separation and waiting for the male to make bubble nest.

2018-12-23 (1st week)
No bubble nest seen so we're assuming that both fishes were not ready to mate yet. However, yesterday was Dongzi Festival, which ended the raining season and weather became more sunny and windy.

We're quite surprised that we saw some fry were swimming vertically. Immediately removed the female Betta and the fish was health and swam actively. We did not use fresh new water but instead water from the breeding container so that the fish won't be stress due to water hardness changes. We will remove the male after one week if the fry manage to survive that long. As shown below, the fry was barely visible but the male was busy picking them up to the bubble nest.

1/ We've read that a male Betta can mate with several female Betta within the span of few weeks. A healthy female, will need 7 to 14 days to ovulate eggs and it can breed three to six time in its life span. But this is scientifically unproven observation from other breeders we've read only.

This Week I Learned 2018 - Week 50

Last week post or something else from the past instead.

What is the one crucial thing when buying insurance? Make sure it's guaranteed renewable. If not, after a big claim, the said issue will be exclude from your policy upon your renewal. If you have an insurance policy but not guarantee renewable, make it has unlimited coverage. Read the Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM)'s guidelines on this. Meanwhile, something related, when comes to insurance claims, you can claim from multiple insurer for Personal Accident (PA) or life. For medical, only can claim from one insurer.

Do we need to push so hard for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education among young people? Yes and no. Yes, if we want to stay competitive in this industry. No, this will create oversupply of labour and thus wages are kept low. Thus, does not really justify for young people to go into STEM industry where wages are too low and education fee was too high for those looking for good university.

What are the best books of 2018? (via HN and Reddit) Well, you can go through the list from NPRGoodreads, The New Yorker, Science Friday, The Wall Street Journal (politics, children, science fiction, and mysteries), Esquire, Amazon Best Sellers or by category (note best seller), The Guardian, Powell, Five Books (science, fiction, and politics), Library Journal, People, Mental Floss, Indigo, Bill Gates himself (summer and winter), Barnes & Noble, Book Page, Financial Times, History Today, Space  (old and new), Smithsonian (history, science, travel, food, and children), and AV Club. There is one book that caught my attention and found in most of the recommended lists, Madeline Miller's Circe. If you don't have a good material to read for the new year, just check the best books of last year.

What happened when bad water quality and monsoon month (December) meet? Twenty dead fishes. Similar thing happened last year around December where some Betta fishes were dying in mass. Is it water hardness, pH level, ammonia level, nitrite level, or diseases? Our conclusion with  some googling suggested that all possible reason. Drastic water change (like 100%) during raining season will shock the fishes leading to low immune system. Furthermore, irregular water changes increases the possibility of ammonia poisoning overfeed without removing the remains will lead to nitrite poisoning.

One obvious symptom was group of Betta fishes cuddle together at the corner at the tank (see photo below). Last year, the same thing happened to our female sorority tank and we thought because these fishes were "bonding". Our naivety caused the total wipeout of all the female Bettas.

How do you troubleshoot DHCP issue within a container? Use tcpdump. `lxdbr0` is the default bridge network adapter used by LXD.
sudo tcpdump -ni lxdbr0 port 67

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20181202 : HMPK Metallic Blue (S) x HMPK Metallic Blue (S)

Yet another sibling pair but this time a metallic blue pair. This is the continuity of the previous breeding pair BSL20181105 (Super Red) and BSL20181005 (Super Yellow). Again, the plan was to breed a sibling pair to produce as much fry as much so we can continue breeding multiple generation. If everything goes well and lucky, this will take several generations of breeding.

Male: HMPK Metalic Blue (S)
Age: 4+ months
Temperaments: Normal.
Size: Small (2.5cm body only)
Grade: C

Not the best one we can obtain but nevertheless, the male Betta was healthy and quite active. We fed it well and kept it within the Indian Almond leaves water just to make sure to quarantine it well. Nevertheless, this fish was fresh from the farm and bred in natural environment and fed with live food. Surely, it's better than those bred in house like us.

Female: HMPK Metalic Blue (S)
Age: 4+ months
Temperaments: Highly active.
Size: Small (2.5cm body only)
Grade: B

When we first bought this female Betta, it was so small but we've no choice, there were no female Betta available for this colour. Nevertheless, we decided to proceed ahead as we're confident to condition this female until it's ready to breed. Took us three months to make sure this female was well fed and always in Indian Almond leaves water. Just in case to prevent sickness. Luckily this female turned out to be healthy and very active.

Log Notes
Bought this pair from the Betta farm. The female was so small and we're worried that it may not be a female at all. Nevertheless, we trust the wisdom of the said Betta breeder.

2018-12-01 (1st week)
The pair mated. The female was immediately separated from the male and put into a plastic container. Since we don't have enough overnight water, the female will stay a while within the breeding box.

Female removed so it won't interfere with the male. The male moved the nest several times, most probably of interruption from us.

Black dot or hatched fry were seen in the bubble nest. Estimate the spawn size was roughly 100-plus.

2018-12-09 (2nd week)
Do plan in advanced when you want to breed the fish. The first two weeks are quite crucial as the fry needs to be fed constantly. Otherwise, the whole spawn will starve to death. Hence, if you need to travel, don't breed and also good to have hatch two batch of BBS, in case one batch does not hatch properly. Especially true if you're using expired BBS. We feed the fish two times per day and the growth and colour was noticeable.

2018-12-16 (3rd week)

1/ Always prepare backup food for the first two weeks in case the BBS did not hatch.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20181105 : HMPK Super Red (M) x HMPK Super Red (M)

Another sibling pair we bought similar to breeding project, BSL20181005. We tends to get sibling pair so we can obtain the same colour as the parent Betta instead of mixing pair from different colours. Our previous breeding projects produce offspring with less than desire colours (as in like Rojak) as shown below.

For breeding Super Red Betta, this is our third breeding project. Breeding project BSL20180518, did produce good offspring, although the number obtained was way too small, roughly around eight and sadly no female Betta at all. Another breeding project BSL20180316, although the female was not a Super Red, did yield one (yes, just one) surviving Super Red. Worst still, it's a very small size male Betta.

What we hope for this breeding project? More female Bettas so we can continue our breeding project for coming generation.

Male: HMPK Super Red (M)
Age: 4+ months
Temperaments: Sluggish and slow.
Size: Medium (3.5cm body only)
Grade: C

When we first bought this male, the movement was quite sluggish and slow. Furthermore, the anal fin was long and caudal fin was not symmetry. Nevertheless, the body size was large and good.

Female: HMPK Super Red (M)
Age: 4+ months
Temperaments: Curious and active.
Size: Medium (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

Nothing special about this female Betta. Just the body was quite thin and long.

Log Notes
Bought this pair from the Betta farm.

Start conditioning. We don't use the usual glass aquarium as breeding tank but a styrofoam box instead.  Reason being that we want to try different approach using different container. Furthermore, styrofoam box ensures both fishes will not be disturbed and keep the temperature stable.

Mating happened and eggs were observed in the bubble nest.

Some fries were seen swimming freely. Estimated that the this spawn was around 60-plus or more. Based on past experience, not all the fry will survive during these breeding period. As usual, the female was removed immediately.

2018-11-11 (1st week)
We've decided not to use leaving-father-with-fry method and removed the male Betta immediately once.

2018-11-18 (2nd week)
BBS feeding as usual. Growing rate were inconsistent among the fishes.

2018-11-25 (3rd week)
BBS feeding as usual. Growing rate were inconsistent among the fishes.

2018-12-02 (4th week)
Total fry count was around 30-plus, half of what observed initially in the first week.

2018-12-09 (5th week)
To increase the growth of these fishes, we decided to feed BBS twice per day.

2018-12-16 (6th week)
We continued to feed BBS twice on daily basis and slowly mixed BBS with to pellet (69% protein). Not all but some fishes started to eat pellet which we hope we can switch it over in coming weeks. Furthermore, we also siphoned more waste from the bottom of the container and 25% water changes.

2018-12-23 (7th week)
The fry started to notice and eat more pellet. Some already swam to the surface expecting food when we opened the lid of the container. Expected growth was quite behind at this week if checked against the Betta fish growth table. The largest was roughly around 1cm (body only).

1/ Pick a good quality male Betta if possible as it will save us more time instead of fixing any defect issues in multiple breeding projects. We can't find any so far and the only way for us was to breed as much as possible and select the best and continue fixing any defects in subsequent generation.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20181005 : HMPK Super Yellow (S) x HMPK Super Yellow (S)

Another sibling pair we bought and this time, a super yellow pair. It's very hard to get a super yellow HMPK and moreover a pair. We're tired to look around for a super yellow HMPK and might as well bought a pair and breed on our own. The plan is to breeding multiple generations of Betta pair to create a lineage.

Male: HMPK Super Yellow (S)
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Curious and active.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: C

As you can see below, not a good grade and the fish is quite small in size. However, since SO like this male Betta, we decided to get this.

Female: HMPK Super Yellow (S)
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Curious and active.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

More nimble and aggressive than the male Betta. Probably the healthiest female we've seen so far.

Log Notes
We went to a Betta farm and bought this pair of super yellow HMPK siblings. SO was excited and always wanted to breed a true super yellow pair since the passing our yellow HMPK.

Conditioning process started but we put the pair of fish into separate jar but both can observe each other.

We put the female Betta in once we felt that the male Betta have already built a large bubble nest. Within hours, both fishes were seen mating. We removed the female Betta immediately after the male Betta was seen chasing it.

2018-10-06 (1st week)
Fry were swimming vertically and started to feed on BBS. SO decided to keep the male within the breeding tank since this male Betta were caring and not aggressive.

2018-10-13 (2nd week)
The fry were growing at expected rate and it's quite a big spawn, roughly estimated around 100-plus.

2018-10-20 (3rd week)
Few survived the outbreak (we're not sure the actual reason) but suspected that we may overfeed, forgot the feed it, or spooked the male Betta causing it to eat all the fry. Nevertheless, we took out the male Betta into its container and try to salvage the remaining fry, which was roughly around 10. We fear that the whole spawn will be wipe out, just like previous failed spawn.

2018-10-20 (4th week)
The remaining ten did not survive except just one fry, the alpha or largest among the group. We cleaned up the whole breeding tank and extracted the one and only fry to its own container. We now have a unique situation, first in our case where we have a spawn of one of all our breeding project.

2018-10-27 (5th week)
The one and only fry was doing well but growth was quite slow and limiting.

2018-11-03 (6th week)
Still surviving but the growth rate was not improving. We fed more BBS and the fry seemed to have taken it but still, growth was slow. Contrary to what we read, isn't a fry with plenty of spaces without any competition should grow quite fast and well?

2018-11-10 (7th week)
Maybe we're not changing the water frequently enough which leads to slow growth?

2018-11-10 (8th week)
The last surviving fry did not make it. Thus the conclusion of this breeding project.

1/ Our visit to the Betta farm reinforced that Indian Almond leaf is crucial to maintain a healthy Betta fish, especially for breeding.

2/ To be safe, do not keep the Betta male withing the spawn, especially for those hard to find pair. Remember to remove the Betta male as soon as the fry start to swim freely.

3/ If you still want to try the father-with-fry method, do it only for non-virgin female Betta. Best not to waste the eggs.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20180824 : HMPK Blue + Black (S) x HMPK Blue + Red (S)

It has been a while since we last started our breeding project. Instead of choice, we're thinking to breeding bluish HMPK Betta. Out of the seven pairs we've tried to breed, only this blue pair managed to mate and spawn.

Male: HMPK Blue + Black (S)
Age: 6+ months
Temperaments: Normal.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

Typical HMPK male that you usually found in aquarium store. We were quite disappointed when we received the fish. For the price we've paid and expecting something better from a reputable Betta breeder, the quality of the male was a lot of be desire.

Female: HMPK Blue + Red (S)
Age: 6+ months
Temperaments: Passive.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: C

One of our own breeding project. Nothing particular special but seemed to be quite futile and bigger than more female Bettas in the community tank.

Log Notes
Conditioning started for both fishes. Contrary to other breeding method, we just threw both fishes into a breeding tank and hoped both fishes will fall in love, mate, and produced lots of small fry.

The pair mated and breed.

Fry were found swimming vertically. Immediately removed the female Betta.

No sure why, but the male Betta were seen swimming back and forth against the glass. Nevertheless, we decided to remove the male Betta from the breeding tank.

2018-09-08 (2nd week)
Fry were growing well even though this was a small spawn, roughly around 10. The BBS given can last for two days and we saw significant growth.

2018-09-15 (3rd week)
Noticeable growth for most of the fry except maybe one or two. Since this spawn was too small, we're contemplating whether to move it to smaller breeding tank.

2018-09-22 (4th week)
90% water changed and cleaned up the breeding tank. To reduce water changes, we have added some aquarium plant (can't find the name yet).

2018-09-29 (5th week)
Nothing special observed.

2018-10-06 (6th week)
Growth have been quite slow. According to the growth table, by sixth week, the fishes supposed to be around 2cm or more. What we observed was all fishes were around, on average 1cm or less. We are thinking about changing the diet or feed those fishes more frequently, from 2 times to 3 or 4 times per day.

2018-11-24 (13th week)
Growth was still slow. Hence we jarred some of the larger one into separate container. We also changed the diet by feeding them different pellet with higher protein contents.

1/ Condition before breeding is quite crucial if you want the Betta couple to mate successfully. Feed them live food a week before pairing both fishes.

2/ Keep track of Betta pair that have been used for spawning so we can keep track 

This Week I Learned 2018 - Week 32

Post from previous week or from the archive.


What are the available wild Betta species? We're looking into Betta Brownorum as our next breeding project. Since this is a wild species, we can't find any stock from local breeders. It seemed you will have to capture it from the wild, in Sarawak.

Why there is a sign in Perl's hash key? Legacy reason.

Getting excited when buying stuffs (the highs is in the anticipation and it's more fun planning a vacation instead of the actual vacation) and have buyer remorse later? There is a quick tip on handling that. Take the amount you're going to spend and pay off any pending debts or loans. In the end, it's a divert and replace strategy. Any impulse purchase can be put off (delay strategy) if you set a goal before succumb to your materialistic needs. For example, lose a KG, indulge yourself into the stuff you desire for so long. Remember to reward yourself as you deserve it. Note that this is applicable to stuff and not really experience, especially spending on good experience with friends and family (moderation applies here as well). Another way, love shopping? Why not spends money on investment. Shop investment, not liabilities. Instead of getting the Nike shoes, buy Nike stocks. You have to ask yourself, which is more motivating? Watching your bills accumulates or your saving grows?

How to spend $0 each day? Meal prep. My friend. Meal prep.

How Europe Learnt to Swim? Like any forms of knowledge, observation, self-learned, trial and error, consolidation, and sharing of knowledge. I'm quite surprised that most island inhabitants can't swim properly to save their own life. Seriously?

What cloths to keep and throw away when cleaning up your closet? One key question to ask yourself is "If I saw this at the store right now, would I buy this again?" Throw away the cloth if the answer is no.

What is JSON PATCH? A combination of JSON and HTTP PATCH. You will see the HTTP content-type have been set to application/json-patch+json.

What was your most 'can't-put-down' book that you've ever read? Here are the list in random order. Overwhelm by the list? The quick way to filter out is to read the first few pages and if it caught your attention, proceed ahead. If not, ignore.
  1. Watership Down by Richard Adams (discussion)
  2. One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez (discussion)
  3. The Historian by Elizabeth Kostova (discussion)
  4. Night Watch by Terry Pratchett (discussion)
  5. 11/22/63 by Stephen King (discussion)
  6. The Book Thief by Markus Zusak (discussion)
  7. Killing Floor by Lee Child (discussion)
  8. Lonesome Dove by Larry McMurtry (discussion)
  9. Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton (discussion)
  10. Neverwhere by Neil Gaiman (discussion)

Betta Fish Growth Table

When breeding Betta fish, how do we know that the Betta fry is growing at the right rate? In the Interweb, most web sites will point to this growth chart of the Wayne's Betta pages. However, the measurement used in the page was not in metric system and it's always hard for us. Hence, we used the information from the page and converted it to metric system.

Note that this growth rate is based on normal Betta fish (Betta Splendens) and may not be suitable for Giant Betta which have different growth rate than normal Betta. Also we've extrapolated the growth rate for week 12.

This Week I Learned 2018 - Week 26

Last week post or something else from archive.

What does meetup these days feel like? Same old same old. It has been so long since I last went for a local meetup without last minutes cancellation or interruption (from my end). Few key observations. First, never interrupt and overshadow the main presenter. Participants should complement the content of the main presenter and sadly most of the time, the discussion was sidetracked into something else. Second, working with right people and challenging problems can be a catalyst to improve your technical abilities and increase your exposures. Third, there is no need to justify any tools of your choice. Sometimes, we use certain tools because we simply like it. Nothing more and nothing less.

Why Colistin have been slowly introduced to our food chain?

想找一个比较好做的事?绝无此事。理当做好自己的本分,做该做的事。别蹉跎(cuō tuó),浪费时间。

Building another laptop? Thinkpad x230 is a good base laptop before mod right now.

Good books by Malaysian authors? It never occurred to me to read "great" (subjective here as popularity does not equal good) books by local writers. Nevertheless, below are the list of writers: Tash AwTan Twan EngAdibah AminRehman RashidRamlee Awang MurshidShirley LimYangsze Choo, and Amir Muhammad.

How do you identify different colour patterns of Betta fish? We always having a hard time remembering which colour patterns. Some good examples (PDF) by Megan Woodrow:

How often should you change your water in Betta growing up tank? Daily with 50% till 90% water changes. No wonder our fry was growing at inconsistent rates and sizes. Optimum growth size is 8 till 12 weeks to reach show grade size.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL201806024 : HM Orange + Red (S) x HM Dirty Yellow (S)

It has been a while we've another breeding project involving two HM. Timing was right as the male HM was making bubble nest and the female HM was fertile with eggs.

Male: HM Orange + Red (S)
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Normal.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

While we have quite a few HMs, especially own breeding project, but there is only a partial orange and red colour HM. While this HM is quite young, this male Betta have been building bubble nest non-stop for the past month.

Female: HM Dirty Yellow (S)
Age: 4+ months
Temperaments: Normal.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: C

This female Betta was part of a pair of yellow HM we bought for breeding. Unfortunately, the mating didn't ended well as both Bettas were fighting with each others and don't want to mate. As you can see from photo below, the female Betta's fins were badly damaged.

Log Notes
We decided to put in another female Betta. The existing female Betta was kept in the breeding tank and isolated in a plastic bottle. Having two female Bettas will increase competition and lead to successfully breeding.

Mating completed during early morning around 4 a.m. We removed the female Betta around late evening as the weather was too cold and temperature of fresh new aquarium water was too low.

Almost one month and the fishes were growing well. Quite a large spawn and we're anticipating the outcome of this spawn.

Instead of the normal rectangle sized aquarium, we have put the fry into the square plastic container. Water changes were done two or three days interval. Good thing was the father Betta was healthy and active without any sickness.

Moved the spawn and combined with BSL201806011. We have started to combine several spawn to save space and reduce our water changes work.

1/ Have to be careful with frequent water changes as certain small size fry may not survive the stress of sudden water changes.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL201806011 : HMPK Black Dragon (M) x HMPK Black Dragon (M)

Yes, another attempt of breeding project with two Black Dragons, this is similar to the failed BSL20180506 breeding project. For this project, we're using another male Betta but with the same female Betta. All these Bettas were purchased from the same breeder and were from the same spawn (siblings).

Male: HMPK Black Dragon
Age: 4+ months
Temperaments: Normal.
Size: Small (3.5cm body only)
Grade: B

Compare to its sibling in BSL20180506, this male Betta is more silverish where the other one more bluish. We don't pay much attention to this male Betta so nothing much we can describe about this one compare to the other more aggressive male Betta.

Female: HMPK Black Dragon
Age: 4+ months
Temperaments: Curious and active.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

The same female that did create a big spawn. We let it rested for a month instead of the usual two weeks before our next spawn. Other than minor bruises, the female Betta looks perfectly fine and was actively swimming around.

Log Notes
Egg was seen on the bubble nest. But we're not sure but suspected that mating did happen before. Will wait a few days to see if any fry were found swimming around.

Saw some fry swimming vertically. Immediately removed the female Betta from the spawning tank. As usual, the male Betta busy collecting and moving the fry back to the bubble nest.

Saw most of the fry started to swim freely. Again, immediately removed the male Betta to prevent similar incident in BSL20180506 to occur again. We don't want to take our chances and decided not to use leaving-father-with-fry breeding method.

When group of fishes grouped together and lay at the bottom, this was an abnormal behaviour that we have observed in our female sorority tank last time which wipe out all the fishes in the tank. Immediately, we did a 90% water changes and see the conditions have improved. After the water changes, the fishes have started to swimming freely in the tank. We're still not exactly sure what was the root cause.

For the last weeks, we noticed a few fishes have died and some fishes grouped together and lay at the bottom of the tank and some were resting at the plant. Based on the past experience, we suspected there must be an outbreak some how but not sure the root cause. We immediately removed all the fishes to a temporary bowl with Methylene Blue medication to remove fungus or parasite; or ammonia or nitrite poisoning. Note that we did a 90% water change yesterday but the condition was improving for a while and reverted back to old symptoms.

We still monitoring the fishes in the small jar but there have been no causalities. Daily water changes is a must.

Certain fry have noticeable silver colouring on their body. Growth have been quite slow and we have quite a few causalities due to careless water changes. Good news was this spawn was not on medication anymore.

Moved the spawn to a bigger tank together with spawn from BSL201806024.

Based on the Betta fish growth table, the growth rate of this spawn did not meet the expected growth rate. The largest fish from the spawn is roughly 2cm or even smaller after 6 months. To make matter worse, most are having swimming and breathing difficulty. We suspected due to frequent water changes which induces unnecessary stress, infrequent feeding, lack of good protein food source, and competition with other spawn in BSL201806024.

1/ Daily water changes is important for the fry growth and prevent any infections.

2/ Make sure the pair of Betta fish are in good health before breeding. Otherwise, the subsequent generation will inherit all the genetic problems of the previous generation.

3/ Instead of using Methylene Blue, we should have use Indian Almond leaves and water plants to manage the water quality.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL201806008 : Giant Armageddon (M) x Giant Galaxy (S)

An ad-hoc breeding project since we obtained another Giant Betta and quite a few female Giant Bettas were in fertile with eggs. Hence, we decided to proceed with this breeding project.

Male: Giant Armageddon
Age: 7+ months
Temperaments: Active.
Size: Medium (4.0cm body only)
Grade: B

We bought this at the local fish shop near Jalan Pasar as we never have a Betta Armageddon before, moreover it's a giant Betta. This male was quite active and started to make bubble nest every time a female Betta was near its proximity. Since SO like this Betta, we have setup a special tank and minor aquascaping to keep the fish entertained. We suspected that this Giant Betta was quite old due to its humpback.

Female: Giant Galaxy
Age: 8+ months
Temperaments: Fast.
Size: Medium (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B+

Since the last Giant breeding project, BSL20180315, with this female Betta, the fish have been kept separated for any breeding project. We did once try to match this female Betta with a Betta Koi. However, this female Giant was so aggressive to the male Betta and the breeding project was not successful.

Log Notes
Eggs were seen in the bubble nest.

Fry were seen swimming vertically. The female Betta was removed immediately to prevent it from eating the eggs.

The male Betta was extracted and moved back to its own tank. The male seemed to have sudden shock and was seen holding upwards position for a while.

The fry have been growing well and looked healthy. Due to their current growth rate, we have decided to move the whole spawn to another bigger growing tank.

The male Betta / father did not survived and succumbed to illness. We're not sure but we have several cases where these sick Betta have swollen mouth at their side. The typical medication did not works well.

1/ Moving the father male Betta from the spawn turned out to be a right decision. As certain adult Betta may have certain sickness and may infect the whole spawn.

2/ Our quarantine period was too short (2 days) before we decided to use the male Betta for breeding project. It's good to have patience and have longer quarantine period. The issue with have with most Giant Betta was the type of Betta is quite fragile and easily fall sick due to stress. We have, if I remembered correctly, six Giant Betta before and most of them were quite fragile.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20180525 : HMPK Black Dragon (M) x HMPK White Spot + Blue (M)

Decided to give it another try with the same male Black Dragon in BSL20180506. Since the male Betta still making bubble nest in the existing same breeding tank, we've decided to put another female to mate with it. Starting from this batch, we will remove both male and female Betta once the fry starts to swimming freely.

Male: HMPK Black Dragon
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Very aggressive and brutal.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

Yup, the same male Betta in BSL20180506. Seemed to be less aggressive these days after several attempts of breeding with it. While it was left alone in the breeding tank, we noticed that it was actively making bubble nest.

Female: HMPK White Spot + Blue
Age: 5+ months
Temperaments: Passive.
Size: Medium (3.5cm body only)
Grade: C

The same female used for breeding in BSL20180326. Little we realized that this female Betta have grown so much and this is probably the largest non-Giant female Betta we have right now.

Log Notes
We decided to put in another female Betta and see how will the male Betta react. For this breeding project, the female Betta was slightly larger than the male Betta and it did not show any slight fear towards to male Betta.

Saw quite a few fry swimming vertically. Surprised to found out that this pair have successfully mated. The male Betta was busy collecting and picking up fry to the fragile bubble nest. Based on the lessons learned in BSL20180506, we immediately jar both the female and male Betta.

The female Betta was growing so well and we noticed that it can produced much eggs. We've decided in future to put her either in a special aquarium tank on her own or a larger community tank. Not a lot of fry, we believe this female Betta can't produce much eggs. Maybe it was not conditioned properly with the right amount of food and so forth.

The male Betta was a bit resistant when we jarred it and quite aggressively of moving around the smaller aquarium tank. Quarantined the male Betta in a quiet and darker place so it won't be stress leaving its fry and new environment.

The male Betta was doing well, although a bit stress and refuse to eat much pellet. The fry was doing fine as well even though the number was quite small. One issue when you removed the male Betta, the idle breeding tank may be infected with Mosquito larvae. We have to manually removed it and feed to other Betta fishes.

1/ We still haven't figure a good way to quarantine the pair after breeding. There were several cases of casualty due to post-breeding infections and stress.

2/ For easy feeding and water maintenance, we merged quite a few spawn together but did not keep track of each spawn. Thus for those small spawn, we're not sure about the growth progress of the Bettas.

This Week I Learned 2018 - Week 20

Week 19 post or something from the past.

Interesting development on the local scene. Everyone is overwhelmed by the endless good news which some seemed too good to be true. Still too soon to tell but nobody think it will get worst than the current mess. On a side note, at least now we can read articles in Medium from our mobile devices.

The completion of BSL20180124. Our second successful spawn. As usual, write-up on the whole process and retrospection on our breeding process. Both of us are getting more experienced, selective, and bolder when breeding Bettas. So many things learned during these few months and what we learned can definitely can help us to improve our other spawning projects. We can now confidently buy better grade (ahem, more expensive) Betta fishes and breed them. But right now, the main focus is to change our breeding method from leaving fry with father to removing fry after free swimming. The former method produces limited number of fry and the later will yield large (till 500 fry) spawn. We shall see the result in coming months.

The difference between `application/xml` and `text/xml`. Encounter this when making RESTful request and the existing CPAN module does not recognizes `text/xml`.

Good sample Dockerfile to setup your Perl application in Docker instance.
FROM perl:5.26

RUN cpanm Carton && mkdir -p /usr/src/app
WORKDIR /usr/src/app

ONBUILD COPY cpanfile* /usr/src/myapp
ONBUILD RUN carton install

ONBUILD COPY . /usr/src/app

Detect whether an item exists in a Perl's array. Why such simple stuff needs to be so complicated in Perl?
# $value can be any regex. be safe
if ( grep( /^$value$/, @array ) ) {
    print "found it";

A Practical Guide to (Correctly) Troubleshooting with Traceroute (PDF). We have been using traceroute wrongly all this while.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20180518 : Super Red HMPK (M) x Super Red HMPK (M)

Finally, the time is right to start with breeding project with a pair of Betta from the same type and colour even although it's not a sibling pair. For this breeding project, we're going to ditch the leaving fry with father method and extract the male Betta once the fry start to swim freely.

Male: HMPK Super Red
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Fast and active.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

Another purchased due to attractive low price. Our plan b for Super Red. Initially it was quite fragile and small but over the time, it was moving actively and making bubble. Hence, we decided to proceed ahead with the breeding.

Female: HMPK Super Red
Age: 5+ months
Temperaments: Aggressive.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

The female Betta was used for different breeding project with another Super Red male but it didn't went through due to size difference. The female was larger than the male. For this project, we were concerned about the size differences as well.

Log Notes
Back from work and was sitting in front of the breeding tank. Didn't realized that both pair was mating during in front of me. We're quite surprised that mating started so soon and can't recall when did we put both pair into the breeding tank to condition them.

Jarred the female Betta. Waiting for these eggs to hatch.

Found some fry swam vertically and the male Betta was busy picking them up. Waiting to jar the male Betta by tomorrow.

Nothing found within the breeding tank. Not sure what happened but we assumed no fry survived.

Found some fry but very small and fragile. We've started to fed BBS to them. Will check if everything goes well.

Still some fry within the tank. Decided to keep the male Betta as it's. Once the fry starts to grow a bit and survive the male Betta, will move to our common breeding tank.

Jarred most of the Betta and cleaned up the breeding tank.

Most juvenile Betta grow accordingly and there were around 5 that survived. Unfortunately, no Super Red female Betta found and all male Betta. Below is the sample photo of one of the grown up Betta.

1/ We have a female Betta tank where we put all our female Betta for breeding after a week of quarantine after successful mating. However, some female Betta may bring other kinds of infections back to this tank.

2/ Instead of breeding other types of Betta, best if we can focus on few selected species or colour types. For now, we want to focus on Super Red instead.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20180526 : CT Red + Blue (S) x HMPK White + Blue (S)

Yet another breeding project with Crown Tail (CT) betta. The previous CT breeding project, BSL20180309, did not produce any fry and SO decided to try again.

Male: CT Red + Blue
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Very active.
Size: Small (2.5cm body only)
Grade: C

Our second CT, nothing special about this one except it has been idle there for quite some time and we decided to test out this CT.

Female: HMPK White + Blue
Age: 4+ months
Temperaments: Active.
Size: Medium (2.5cm body only)
Grade: C

The first female from our breeding project, BSL20171231 that was used for this breeding project. We have a spawn of female Betta waiting to be mate with another male Betta so we tried with this one first. Again, nothing particular special about this female Betta.

Log Notes
The CT was purchased and delivered to us. Looked quite small and fragile but it seemed to settle down just right.

We put the pair into a small plastic breeding jar.

Mating started and we saw some eggs. Immediately we removed the female Betta as the breeding jar was too small. The male Betta will attack the female Betta since the container was so small.

Since this small spawn was moved to other breeding tank, till today we still can't find any of its fry. There were no noticeable fry with CT tail. Unfortunately, we have decided that this breeding project was not really successful.

1/ For CT, maybe we should pair it up with another CT female. Otherwise, the gene will not be inherited over to the next generation.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20180507 : HMPK Koi Red (M) x HMPK Koi Red (M)

This is the continuity to the failed breeding project of BSL20180328. For this breeding project, the same female was paired up with the newly bought male Betta. We were a bit reluctant to mate this pair as the female Betta was older and a bit larger than the male Betta. Past experiences have shown us that mismatch body size between the pair where the female is larger than the male may not work. The male Betta may get bullied by the female Betta.

Male: HMPK Koi Red
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Cowardy.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

Even after several months this young male Betta with us, it's still still quite wary of human interaction. When we placed it next to the female Betta, it have shown some interests and started to making bubble nest.

Female: HMPK Koi Red
Age: 5+ months
Temperaments: Curious and active.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

Since the last breeding project in March, the female have been quarantined for two months. It's now more active and curious and we noticed the female Betta was ready to mate as its stomach was full with eggs.

Log Notes
We monitored it for a while but didn't find the female Betta was interested with mating. The female Betta was older and size-wise, is quite similar and larger than the male Betta. Both were flaring with each other.

We assumed the pair have mated on this day.

To our surprised, we noticed some fry were swimming vertically and didn't realized that the pair have already mated. Immediately, we removed the female Betta and put into quarantine tank. As usual, the male Betta was busy collecting the fallen fry and relocated it back to the bubble nest.

These fry start to swim freely and we've started to feed Baby Brine Shrimp (BBS). To our surprised again, this spawn is probably one of our largest spawn, roughly around 200 to 300. We were wondering how many would survive for the coming weeks? We're tempted to remove the male Betta but decided to keep the male Betta in the spawning tank. Let's hope the male Betta will not eat up all the little fry.

The number of fry in the breeding tank still maintain. The male Betta still leave them aside. We were discussing on whether to take out the male Betta so we can have a spawn of 200 till 300. In the end, we decided to keep the male Betta so it can curl those unhealthy fry till a average number of 40-plus fishes. Too soon to tell, it will end up that the male Betta wipe out the whole spawn.

Yup, as we predicted, the population of the fry have been reduced by 70%. Not much left within the breeding tank. Maybe we should proceed with different breeding method by removing the male Betta by the time the fry already started swimming freely.

We can't find more fry except maybe one. Therefore, we've decided to move the male Betta into a quarantine tank and left the breeding tank as it's before wrapping it up.

It seemed we made a mistake. Most of the fry where hiding within the aquarium plant. We've decided to extract and move them to different breeding tank. A total of 83 fry were captured and moved.

Found even more fry in the existing tank. Total count was 107. It's very hard to find and see any fry if they are too small and body were transparent.

Most fry have grown into juvenile Betta. We can observe some colour variation and some with curved spine (water quality or infection?).

1/ Not every male Betta is suitable for leaving fry with father method. Mostly likely it will eat up all the fry due to stress. Main cause of the stress was due to the breeding tank was a clear tank instead of the covered box.

2/ For future spawning project, out discussion lead us to use different breeding method. We will extract the male Betta once the fry start to swim freely.