Showing posts with label koi. Show all posts
Showing posts with label koi. Show all posts

UMT MOOC: Ornamental Fish Culture - Topic 3: Quality Characteristic Determination - Koi & Discus

Continue from previous post.

This post will delve into the acceptable standards for quality Koi and Discus fish. As I mentioned in my previous posts before, the beauty is in the eye of the beholder. If you're a hobbyist, the first question you should ask yourself. Do you like the fish? Are you excited? If so, regardless the standards, go for what you like. A fish personalities or deportments is hard to gauge and subjective by person to person. Nevertheless, let's continue with our discussions.

Koi fish. Due to enormous varieties and rivalry between breeders around the world, it's quite hard to finalize on which is the best koi. However, there are some guidelines on quality koi which can be summarized into four characteristics: (1) Size where shape, volumes as well as fins are symmetry,  (2) Colours should be deep, intense, and uniform, (3) Patterns should be uniform, scale should be sharp, and not dirty marks, and (4) Presence as in personality and vitality.

The video below should gives us some clues on top notch quality Koi.


Discus fish or I like to call it pancake fish. It seemed we still don't have a good published standard even though there were many competitions held? The general consensus rules for good quality Discus are: (1) Overall impression, the wow factor. (2) Size of the fish on its proportion, the body shape is round and high, (2) Fins are long and extended, symmetry, and good proportion to the body (3) Colours are vivid and unique clear pattern and (4) Eyes size and colour as well as the proportion to the body size, and (4) Swimming pattern is steady. Below is the video on how juries judge Discus fish.


Examples are the show grade Discus at 2nd European Discus Championship as shown in video below.





This Week I Learned 2018 - Week 40

Last week post or something from the past.

What is the most expensive Koi fish sold at this moment? USD 1.7 millions! Yes, that was bid for for a champion Koi fish from Sakai Fish Farm. From the video's comment, the lady bidder is Chung Ying Ying, the Koi queen from Taiwan. Not really a fan of Koi fish as I do enjoy viewing fishes from side view instead from the top.

How can you write longer articles without adding more words? Switch to Times Newer Roman font which extends each character by 5 to 10 percents wider.

Why I'm grateful to live in MY instead of ID. (via Reddit) It's quite crazy there were so many instances of earth quake or typhoons at our neighboring countries. In return, we got their haze and labours.

Why should I croak instead of die? Use croak for the caller mistake and use die for the code mistake. According to the Carp module documentation,
The Carp routines are useful in your own modules because they act like die() or warn(), but with a message which is more likely to be useful to a user of your module. 
What if the subroutine returns a list but you want to assign it as an array reference? Use anonymous array.

How to resolve "Cannot determine local time zone" in Ubuntu under WSL environment? You will need to reconfigure your timezone again as a workaround for WSL constraint.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL201806011 : HMPK Black Dragon (M) x HMPK Black Dragon (M)

Yes, another attempt of breeding project with two Black Dragons, this is similar to the failed BSL20180506 breeding project. For this project, we're using another male Betta but with the same female Betta. All these Bettas were purchased from the same breeder and were from the same spawn (siblings).


Male: HMPK Black Dragon
Age: 4+ months
Temperaments: Normal.
Size: Small (3.5cm body only)
Grade: B

Compare to its sibling in BSL20180506, this male Betta is more silverish where the other one more bluish. We don't pay much attention to this male Betta so nothing much we can describe about this one compare to the other more aggressive male Betta.



Female: HMPK Black Dragon
Age: 4+ months
Temperaments: Curious and active.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

The same female that did create a big spawn. We let it rested for a month instead of the usual two weeks before our next spawn. Other than minor bruises, the female Betta looks perfectly fine and was actively swimming around.


Log Notes
2018-06-11
Egg was seen on the bubble nest. But we're not sure but suspected that mating did happen before. Will wait a few days to see if any fry were found swimming around.

2018-06-13
Saw some fry swimming vertically. Immediately removed the female Betta from the spawning tank. As usual, the male Betta busy collecting and moving the fry back to the bubble nest.



2018-06-14
Saw most of the fry started to swim freely. Again, immediately removed the male Betta to prevent similar incident in BSL20180506 to occur again. We don't want to take our chances and decided not to use leaving-father-with-fry breeding method.

2018-07-12
When group of fishes grouped together and lay at the bottom, this was an abnormal behaviour that we have observed in our female sorority tank last time which wipe out all the fishes in the tank. Immediately, we did a 90% water changes and see the conditions have improved. After the water changes, the fishes have started to swimming freely in the tank. We're still not exactly sure what was the root cause.


2018-07-13
For the last weeks, we noticed a few fishes have died and some fishes grouped together and lay at the bottom of the tank and some were resting at the plant. Based on the past experience, we suspected there must be an outbreak some how but not sure the root cause. We immediately removed all the fishes to a temporary bowl with Methylene Blue medication to remove fungus or parasite; or ammonia or nitrite poisoning. Note that we did a 90% water change yesterday but the condition was improving for a while and reverted back to old symptoms.


2018-07-17
We still monitoring the fishes in the small jar but there have been no causalities. Daily water changes is a must.

2018-08-10
Certain fry have noticeable silver colouring on their body. Growth have been quite slow and we have quite a few causalities due to careless water changes. Good news was this spawn was not on medication anymore.

2018-08-18
Moved the spawn to a bigger tank together with spawn from BSL201806024.

2018-12-02
Based on the Betta fish growth table, the growth rate of this spawn did not meet the expected growth rate. The largest fish from the spawn is roughly 2cm or even smaller after 6 months. To make matter worse, most are having swimming and breathing difficulty. We suspected due to frequent water changes which induces unnecessary stress, infrequent feeding, lack of good protein food source, and competition with other spawn in BSL201806024.



Retrospection
1/ Daily water changes is important for the fry growth and prevent any infections.

2/ Make sure the pair of Betta fish are in good health before breeding. Otherwise, the subsequent generation will inherit all the genetic problems of the previous generation.

3/ Instead of using Methylene Blue, we should have use Indian Almond leaves and water plants to manage the water quality.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20180507 : HMPK Koi Red (M) x HMPK Koi Red (M)

This is the continuity to the failed breeding project of BSL20180328. For this breeding project, the same female was paired up with the newly bought male Betta. We were a bit reluctant to mate this pair as the female Betta was older and a bit larger than the male Betta. Past experiences have shown us that mismatch body size between the pair where the female is larger than the male may not work. The male Betta may get bullied by the female Betta.

Male: HMPK Koi Red
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Cowardy.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

Even after several months this young male Betta with us, it's still still quite wary of human interaction. When we placed it next to the female Betta, it have shown some interests and started to making bubble nest.



Female: HMPK Koi Red
Age: 5+ months
Temperaments: Curious and active.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

Since the last breeding project in March, the female have been quarantined for two months. It's now more active and curious and we noticed the female Betta was ready to mate as its stomach was full with eggs.



Log Notes
2015-05-07
We monitored it for a while but didn't find the female Betta was interested with mating. The female Betta was older and size-wise, is quite similar and larger than the male Betta. Both were flaring with each other.


2018-05-08
We assumed the pair have mated on this day.

2018-05-10
To our surprised, we noticed some fry were swimming vertically and didn't realized that the pair have already mated. Immediately, we removed the female Betta and put into quarantine tank. As usual, the male Betta was busy collecting the fallen fry and relocated it back to the bubble nest.


2018-05-12
These fry start to swim freely and we've started to feed Baby Brine Shrimp (BBS). To our surprised again, this spawn is probably one of our largest spawn, roughly around 200 to 300. We were wondering how many would survive for the coming weeks? We're tempted to remove the male Betta but decided to keep the male Betta in the spawning tank. Let's hope the male Betta will not eat up all the little fry.




2018-05-15
The number of fry in the breeding tank still maintain. The male Betta still leave them aside. We were discussing on whether to take out the male Betta so we can have a spawn of 200 till 300. In the end, we decided to keep the male Betta so it can curl those unhealthy fry till a average number of 40-plus fishes. Too soon to tell, it will end up that the male Betta wipe out the whole spawn.

2018-05-17
Yup, as we predicted, the population of the fry have been reduced by 70%. Not much left within the breeding tank. Maybe we should proceed with different breeding method by removing the male Betta by the time the fry already started swimming freely.

2018-05-20
We can't find more fry except maybe one. Therefore, we've decided to move the male Betta into a quarantine tank and left the breeding tank as it's before wrapping it up.

2018-05-23
It seemed we made a mistake. Most of the fry where hiding within the aquarium plant. We've decided to extract and move them to different breeding tank. A total of 83 fry were captured and moved.

2018-05-25
Found even more fry in the existing tank. Total count was 107. It's very hard to find and see any fry if they are too small and body were transparent.

2018-08-19
Most fry have grown into juvenile Betta. We can observe some colour variation and some with curved spine (water quality or infection?).

Retrospection
1/ Not every male Betta is suitable for leaving fry with father method. Mostly likely it will eat up all the fry due to stress. Main cause of the stress was due to the breeding tank was a clear tank instead of the covered box.

2/ For future spawning project, out discussion lead us to use different breeding method. We will extract the male Betta once the fry start to swim freely.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20180506 : HMPK Black Dragon (M) x HMPK Black Dragon (S)

This is probably the worse breeding process ever we've observed and partly it's due to our negligence. We started this breeding project because this is our first spawn which consists of a pair of siblings and more importantly, a pair of Black Dragon.

Male: HMPK Black Dragon
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Very aggressive and brutal.
Size: Small (3.5cm body only)
Grade: B


Female: HMPK Black Dragon
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Curious and active.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B



Log Notes
2018-04-03
Due to some luck, we managed to buy two pairs of HMPK Black Dragon from a same breeder. Based on the size, we estimated these Bettas were around 3+ months. We decided to let these fishes to settle down as we're too occupied with other breeding projects.

2018-04-30
We tried to breed with a pair of Bettas. Due to our carelessness, the male Betta was attacking the female Betta very aggressively during the mating. The female Betta was badly injured and we removed and quarantined the female Betta after two days of severe injuries. It did not survive.

2018-05-06
Second mating with another female Betta proven to be successful. We found some eggs in the scattered bubble nest.



2018-05-08
Quite a large spawn and we found quite a lot of fry. The male Betta was busy picking up fry and brought back to the bubble nest.

2018-05-10
Whole population was wipe out by the male Betta. No a single fry left in the breeding tank.

Retrospection
1/ If the male Betta is very aggressive (pay attention to how much damage it causes the female Betta), remove the female Betta immediately if no eggs were seen in two days. Aggressive male Betta should be monitored very closely.

2/ Refer to point (1). Move the male Betta immediately after the fry swims freely. Aggressive or frighten male Betta may eat the whole fry population.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20180419 : HMPK Dumbo (S) x HMPK Koi (S)

In an ad doc manner, SO decided to just started another breeding project using this Dumbo. This was the first time we just simply just threw in another female Betta in such smaller jar and let the pair to "sort things out" themselves. Luckily mating was fast and another spawn was started. For this breeding project, we have tried a few different approaches in spawning and breeding.

1/ Smaller container and no conditioning period as there was no space to put in another tiny jar to isolate the male and female. Luckily the male Betta was not aggressive and did not attacked and injured the female Betta.

2/ Still using leaving the fry with father method. Surprising the fry managed to survive and the male Betta (father) did not eat the whole spawn.

3/ We also added some Ghost/Glass Shrimp into the breeding tank to clean up the algae and become aquarium cleaner.

Male: HMPK Dumbo (S)
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Chill.
Size: Small (2.5cm body only)
Grade: B

The Dumbo was raised since 1.5 months old and it was basically chilling in its own jar. Personality wise, very chill and not aggressive at all. We're not a fan of Dumbo Betta but it's good to have one in our collection to observe the behavour of this species.



Female: HMPK Koi (S)
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Curious and active.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

We can't really recall anything special about this female Betta. All we can remembered was this female Betta was paired up in other breeding projects.



Log Notes
2018-04-19
Fry were observed swimming vertically. We've decided to just leave the father Betta within the mating jar and extracted the mother Betta. Spawn size was quite small which was expected as we remembered correctly, the female have been used for other breeding project.



2018-05-15
The fry was growing and we've decided to move the growing jar to a new growing tank with lots of Amazon Frogbit. Photo shown below shown the acclimating process.


Here was another photo showed that the male Betta and its fry were still swimming within the plastic jar and still unsure to swim out to the bigger growing tank.


2018-08-18
Moved all the Betta into the main female community tank. We assumed that all the Betta left in the tank were female.

Retrospection
1/ Only add Ghost shrimp when the fry have reached certain size. Do not put shrimp with sizes larger than the fry. Both will fight each other during feeding and we've observed torn fins among the fry.

Betta Spawn Log : BSL20180328 : HMPK Koi (M) x HMPK Koi (S)

Longest possible pair that we've conditioned before breeding, roughly 1-plus month. SO was not hurried to breed this pair and wanted to wait for other spawn to mature enough. Nevertheless, we've noticed that the female Betta have been ready for so long and might as well let both mate and breed.

Male: HMPK Koi
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Active and curious.
Size: Small (3.5cm body only)
Grade: B

Always curious and not afraid to confront us when ever we feed the male Betta. This is one male Betta which swims in an aggressive and majestic way.



Female: HMPK Koi
Age: 3+ months
Temperaments: Curious.
Size: Small (3.0cm body only)
Grade: B

Nothing particular special about this female Betta. Just quite quiet.


Log Notes
2018-03-28
The female Betta was let out from the isolation cup and both Bettas started to mate without much trouble. However, we've noticed not much eggs were produced and kind of disappointed with the outcome. We decided to let both fishes to settle down during the night.

2018-03-29
The male started to chase the female Betta. We assumed that the mating should have been completed. Unfortunately, we don't see much eggs in the bubble nest. The female Betta was jarred and quarantined. The female was looking quite good without any damages to its fins. Most likely explanation was both Bettas was conditioned within the breeding tank for so long. Maybe that could be the reason why not much eggs was fertilized during mating?

2018-04-06
Not many fry found within the tank as most were swimming or hiding at the back of the breeding tank covered by thick aquarium tank.

2018-04-10
No fry left.

2018-06-10
The male Betta did not survive after we've quarantined it into another jar.

Retrospection
1/ We've underestimated the stress level of certain male Betta. Some male Bettas were not comfortable with human presence and may led them to eat up all the fry.